IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Environmental Fiscal Reform in Namibia – a potential approach to reduce poverty?


  • Sahlén, Linda

    () (Department of Economics, Umeå University)


In this paper, the likely effects of an environmental fiscal reform in Namibia are examined using a Computable General Equilibrium model. Namibia is a natural resource rich country with poverty alleviation as one important target on the policy agenda. One way for the government of simultaneously ensuring both a sustainable use of the resources and a less skewed income distribution might be to introduce an environmental fiscal reform, where taxes on natural and environmental resources (fish rents, energy and water) are recycled in order to give additional benefits (in terms of GDP, employment and income distribution) to the economy. The results indicate that for some recycling options, there is scope for additional benefits. Subsidizing unskilled labour would give the most favourable result, at least in terms of real GDP and employment. However, poverty might not only be a question of employment; since food constitutes a significant part of poor households’ expenditures, a decrease in taxes on food might be an interesting option if GDP, employment, income distribution and environmental impacts are considered in combination.

Suggested Citation

  • Sahlén, Linda, 2008. "Environmental Fiscal Reform in Namibia – a potential approach to reduce poverty?," Umeå Economic Studies 757, Umeå University, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:umnees:0757

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Daniel Hallberg & Matias Eklöf, 2010. "Do buy-outs of older workers matter?: Estimating retirement behavior with special early retirement offers," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 31(3), pages 337-359, June.
    2. A. Smith, Jeffrey & E. Todd, Petra, 2005. "Does matching overcome LaLonde's critique of nonexperimental estimators?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 125(1-2), pages 305-353.
    3. Wiji Arulampalam & Alison L. Booth & Mark L. Bryan, 2004. "Training in Europe," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 2(2-3), pages 346-360, 04/05.
    4. Gary S. Becker, 1962. "Investment in Human Capital: A Theoretical Analysis," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 70, pages 1-9.
    5. Sveinbjörn Blöndal & Stefano Scarpetta, 1999. "The Retirement Decision in OECD Countries," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 202, OECD Publishing.
    6. Steven Glazerman & Dan M. Levy & David Myers, "undated". "Nonexperimental Versus Experimental Estimates of Earnings Impacts," Mathematica Policy Research Reports 7c8bd68ac8db47caa57c70ee1, Mathematica Policy Research.
    7. Wallace, T D & Ihnen, L A, 1975. "Full-Time Schooling in Life-Cycle Models of Human Capital Accumulation," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 83(1), pages 137-155, February.
    8. Black, Dan A. & Smith, J.A.Jeffrey A., 2004. "How robust is the evidence on the effects of college quality? Evidence from matching," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 121(1-2), pages 99-124.
    9. Peracchi, Franco & Welch, Finis, 1994. "Trends in Labor Force Transitions of Older Men and Women," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 12(2), pages 210-242, April.
    10. de Luna, Xavier & Johansson, Per, 2009. "Non-Parametric Inference for the Effect of a Treatment on Survival Times with Application in the Health and Social Sciences," IZA Discussion Papers 3966, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    11. Jacobson, Louis & LaLonde, Robert & G. Sullivan, Daniel, 2005. "Estimating the returns to community college schooling for displaced workers," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 125(1-2), pages 271-304.
    12. Andrew Weiss, 1995. "Human Capital vs. Signalling Explanations of Wages," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 133-154, Fall.
    13. Eklöf, Matias & Hallberg, Daniel, 2006. "Estimating retirement behavior with special early retirement offers," Working Paper Series 2006:13, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
    14. Marco Caliendo & Sabine Kopeinig, 2008. "Some Practical Guidance For The Implementation Of Propensity Score Matching," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(1), pages 31-72, February.
    15. Didier Fouarge & Trudie Schils, 2009. "The Effect of Early Retirement Incentives on the Training Participation of Older Workers," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 23(s1), pages 85-109, March.
    16. Fredriksson, Peter & Johansson, Per, 2008. "Dynamic Treatment Assignment," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 26, pages 435-445.
    17. Kalwij, A.S. & Vermeulen, F.M.P., 2005. "Labour Force Participation of the Elderly in Europe : The Importance of Being Healthy," Discussion Paper 2005-130, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    18. Patrick Aubert & Eve Caroli & Muriel Roger, 2006. "New technologies, organisation and age: firm-level evidence," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 116(509), pages 73-93, February.
    19. Hallberg, Daniel, 2003. "A Description of Routes out of the Labor Force for Workers in Sweden," Working Paper Series 2003:23, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
    20. Adriana Lleras-Muney, 2005. "The Relationship Between Education and Adult Mortality in the United States," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 72(1), pages 189-221.
    21. Altonji, Joseph G, 1993. "The Demand for and Return to Education When Education Outcomes Are Uncertain," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 11(1), pages 48-83, January.
    22. Sällström, Susanna & Sjogren, Anna, 2002. "Trapped, Delayed and Handicapped," CEPR Discussion Papers 3335, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    23. Anders Karlstrom & Marten Palme & Ingemar Svensson, 2004. "A dynamic programming approach to model the retirement behaviour of blue-collar workers in Sweden," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 19(6), pages 795-807.
    24. Langot, François & Moreno-Galbis, Eva, 2013. "Does the growth process discriminate against older workers?," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 38(PB), pages 286-306.
    25. James Monks, 1998. "The effect of uncertain returns on human capital investment patterns," Atlantic Economic Journal, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 26(4), pages 413-419, December.
    26. repec:dau:papers:123456789/10051 is not listed on IDEAS
    27. Stenberg, Anders, 2009. "Upgrading the Low Skilled: Is Public Provision of Formal Education a Sensible Policy?," Working Paper Series 1/2009, Stockholm University, Swedish Institute for Social Research.
    28. repec:mpr:mprres:3694 is not listed on IDEAS
    29. Bartel, Ann P & Sicherman, Nachum, 1993. "Technological Change and Retirement Decisions of Older Workers," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 11(1), pages 162-183, January.
    30. Albrecht, James & van den Berg, Gerard J & Vroman, Susan, 2004. "The knowledge lift: The Swedish adult education program that aimed to eliminate low worker skill levels," Working Paper Series 2004:17, IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy.
    31. Mark R. Killingsworth, 1982. ""Learning by Doing" and "Investment in Training": A Synthesis of Two "Rival" Models of the Life Cycle," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 49(2), pages 263-271.
    32. Borghans,Lex & Weel,Bas,ter, 2002. "Do Older Workers Have More Trouble Using a Computer Than Younger Workers?," ROA Research Memorandum 003, Maastricht University, Research Centre for Education and the Labour Market (ROA).
    33. Stenberg, Anders & Westerlund, Olle, 2008. "Does comprehensive education work for the long-term unemployed," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 54-67, February.
    34. Weiss, Yoram, 1971. "Learning by doing and occupational specialization," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 189-198, June.
    35. Iwahashi, Roki, 2007. "A theoretical assessment of regional development effects on the demand for general education," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 387-394, June.
    36. Adriaan Kalwij & Frederic Vermeulen, 2008. "Health and labour force participation of older people in Europe: What do objective health indicators add to the analysis?," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(5), pages 619-638.
    37. de Luna, Xavier & Johansson, Per, 2007. "Matching estimators for the effect of a treatment on survival times," Working Paper Series 2007:1, IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy.
    38. Oosterbeek, Hessel, 1998. "Unravelling Supply and Demand Factors in Work-Related Training," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 50(2), pages 266-283, April.
    39. Stock, James H & Wise, David A, 1990. "Pensions, the Option Value of Work, and Retirement," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 58(5), pages 1151-1180, September.
    40. Eklöf, Matias & Hallberg, Daniel, 2004. "Private Alternatives and Early Retirement Programs," Working Paper Series 2004:5, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
    41. Michael Spence, 1973. "Job Market Signaling," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 87(3), pages 355-374.
    42. Louis Jacobson & Robert J. Lalonde & Daniel Sullivan, 2005. "The Impact of Community College Retraining on Older Displaced Workers: Should We Teach Old Dogs New Tricks?," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 58(3), pages 398-415, April.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item


    computable general equilibrium model; environmental fiscal reform; revenue recycling;

    JEL classification:

    • D58 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models
    • H21 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Efficiency; Optimal Taxation
    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products
    • Q25 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Water

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hhs:umnees:0757. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (David Skog). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.