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New Start-ups and Firm In-migration –Evidence from the Swedish Wholesale Trade Industry


  • Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov

    () (HUI Research and Dalarna University)

  • Elert, Niklas

    () (The Ratio Institute)

  • Rudholm, Niklas

    () (HUI Research and Dalarna University)


The purpose of this paper is to distinguish between the determinants of new start-ups and in migration of firms using a data-set that covers 13,471 limited liability firms in the Swedish wholesale trade industries during the period 2000- 2004. Our results indicate that the presence of a university more than doubles the expected number of entrants and increases the expected number of in-migrating firms with 30%. A large share of educated workers and a high local unemployment rate is also associated with more start-ups and firm in-migration.

Suggested Citation

  • Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov & Elert, Niklas & Rudholm, Niklas, 2011. "New Start-ups and Firm In-migration –Evidence from the Swedish Wholesale Trade Industry," Ratio Working Papers 171, The Ratio Institute.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:ratioi:0171

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Levine, Ross & Zervos, Sara, 1998. "Stock Markets, Banks, and Economic Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 537-558, June.
    2. La Porta, Rafael & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1997. " Legal Determinants of External Finance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(3), pages 1131-1150, July.
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    4. Rajan, Raghuram G & Zingales, Luigi, 1998. "Financial Dependence and Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 559-586, June.
    5. Abrams, Burton A & Lewis, Kenneth A, 1995. "Cultural and Institutional Determinants of Economic Growth: A Cross-Section Analysis," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 83(3-4), pages 273-289, June.
    6. Congleton,Roger D., 2011. "Perfecting Parliament," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521764605, March.
    7. Knack, Steve, 1996. "Institutions and the Convergence Hypothesis: The Cross-National Evidence," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 87(3-4), pages 207-228, June.
    8. Franco Modigliani & Enrico Perotti, 1997. "Protection of minority interest and the development of security markets," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(7-8), pages 519-528.
    9. Asli Demirgüç-Kunt & Vojislav Maksimovic, 1998. "Law, Finance, and Firm Growth," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(6), pages 2107-2137, December.
    10. David S. Landes, 2006. "Why Europe and the West? Why Not China?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 20(2), pages 3-22, Spring.
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    Cited by:

    1. Carling, Kenneth & Håkansson, Johan & Rudholm, Niklas, 2012. "Optimal retail location and CO2 emissions," HUI Working Papers 76, HUI Research.
    2. Anders Bornhäll & Sven-Olov Daunfeldt & Niklas Rudholm, 2013. "Sleeping Gazelles: High profits but no growth," SPRU Working Paper Series 2013-10, SPRU - Science and Technology Policy Research, University of Sussex.

    More about this item


    Firm growth; firm size; job creation; small firms;

    JEL classification:

    • L11 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
    • L25 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Firm Performance
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship


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