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BNP-begreppets historia

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  • Sandelin, Bo

    () (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University)

Abstract

Det första kända försöket att beräkna värdet av ett helt lands produktion eller inkomst brukar tillskrivas den engelske 1600-talsekonomen William Petty. Adam Smith diskuterade beräkningsprinciperna i Folkens välstånd (1776) och menade att bara varuproduktion skall inkluderas, och den ståndpunkten övertogs av Marx ungefär 100 år senare. Denna uppfattning hade tidigt kritiserats, och Alfred och Mary Paley Marshall betonade i slutet av 1800-talet att produktionen av både varor och tjänster bör ingå, vilket också är den princip som tillämpas i nutida nationalräkenskaper. Irving Fisher avvek i början av 1900-talet genom att bara vilja inkludera tjänsteproduktion, men å andra sidan menade han att även kortlivade varor ger tjänster. En terminologisk förändring skedde i mitten av nittonhundratalet genom att man började tala om nationalprodukt snarare än nationalinkomst; den senare termen hade tidigare varit vanlig även då det primärt varit produktionen som man mätt. Det skedde samtidigt en förskjutning av intresset från nettobegreppet till bruttobegreppet, BNP. Under 1900-talet växte internationell harmonisering av beräkningsprinciperna fram i hägn av FN, OECD, IMF och EU.

Suggested Citation

  • Sandelin, Bo, 2006. "BNP-begreppets historia," Working Papers in Economics 224, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:gunwpe:0224
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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2077/2720
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    Keywords

    Bruttonationalprodukt; BNP; nationalräkenskaper.;

    JEL classification:

    • B10 - Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology - - History of Economic Thought through 1925 - - - General
    • E01 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General - - - Measurement and Data on National Income and Product Accounts and Wealth; Environmental Accounts

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