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Le juge constitutionnel : acteur essentiel de la répartition verticale des compétences

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  • Jérémy Salles

    () (GREQAM - Groupement de Recherche en Économie Quantitative d'Aix-Marseille - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - ECM - Ecole Centrale de Marseille)

Abstract

La question centrale des Etats de droit est celle du contrôle du pouvoir. Les philosophes politiques ont cerné très tôt le risque lié au fait qu'un seul organe puisse avoir les trois pouvoirs. Il paraît donc nécessaire de privilégier la séparation horizontale des pouvoirs. Les Etats fédéraux se caractérisent aussi par un système de séparation verticale des pouvoirs. Ainsi, l'Etat fédéral aura toujours tendance à privilégier des normes nationales pour asseoir sa légitimité alors que les Etats fédérés voudront démontrer leur efficacité dans la gestion locale de telle ou telle compétence. Le système fédéral induit une lutte verticale des pouvoirs. Cette lutte est aussi la garantie d'un contrôle réciproque entre ces deux sphères étatiques. Au sein de cette répartition verticale, le juge constitutionnel joue un rôle fondamental. En théorie celui-ci doit être l'arbitre de ce conflit. Mais ses positions jurisprudentielles marquent une croissance des compétences de l'Etat fédéral. Ainsi la compétence de principe lui appartient aujourd'hui, contrairement aux théories classiques du fédéralisme, dans lesquelles cet organe ne doit disposer que de compétences d'attribution. Pour envisager cette situation institutionnelle, nous utilisons le modèle d'agence. Le juge constitutionnel, en tant qu'agent du Constituant ou agent primaire lointain des citoyens, brise l'équilibre constitutionnel démocratique. Le constituant peut lutter contre cela en délimitant précisément le cadre juridique de cette répartition. Il dispose d'un choix juridique entre une répartition par liste de compétences ou l'utilisation d'un principe général organisationnel. Pour lutter contre cette tendance centralisatrice, il nous faut en étudier les causes et distinguer les différents modèles constitutionnels. Ainsi le constituant pourra agir en dynamisant le principe de subsidiarité mais aussi en prévoyant des procédures de contrôle juridique et politique du juge constitutionnel.

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  • Jérémy Salles, 2008. "Le juge constitutionnel : acteur essentiel de la répartition verticale des compétences," Working Papers halshs-00290086, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:wpaper:halshs-00290086 Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00290086
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    Keywords

    Principe de subsidiarité.; Principe de subsidiarité; Fédéralisme; Juge constitutionnel;

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