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Agglomeration externalities and urbanization in Ecuador

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  • Carolina Guevara

    (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - Université de Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

  • Stéphane Riou

    () (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - Université de Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

  • Corinne Autant-Bernard

    () (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - Université de Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

Abstract

The spatial agglomeration of economic activities play a crucial role on productivity but the composition of such an agglomeration is what really matters. There exists an ongoing debate between the predominance of the effects of agglomeration from specialization and diversity. This paper aims to estimate the impact of the type of externalities on the local sectoral productivity in Ecuador, a country of Latin American region for which literature gives little attention. When measuring agglomeration economies, one concern is the endogeneity issue. In this purpose, the instrumental variables method is implemented. We provide estimations using GMM model and we instrument the endogenous variable with a menace index, long lagged population density and spatial lags. Last, we investigate the specific role of urbanization. The intuition is that a critical level of urbanization is required to produce positive externalities as it guarantees the existence of a minimum level of transport and telecommunication infrastructures, of banking and financial services or other specific services. It is also a manner to capture the great heterogeneity of Ecuadorian cantons in terms of urbanization. Our empirical work is mainly based on the Economic Census of Ecuador 2010 which accounts for information declared in 2009. By aggregating the firm data, we build a two-digits industry database at the cantonal level. Precisely, our estimations are based on 86 industries and 221 cantons. From a first polled estimation on 7988 canton and industry pairs, our results suggest the existence of strong positive externalities from diversity impacting on the local productivity of industries and a lower impact of specialization. We also find economies of density, measured by the density of firms at the canton and industry levels that positively influence the local productivity of industries. Competition of firms has a significant negative effect. Moreover, we conduct regressions by distinguishing the manufact
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

Suggested Citation

  • Carolina Guevara & Stéphane Riou & Corinne Autant-Bernard, 2015. "Agglomeration externalities and urbanization in Ecuador," Post-Print halshs-01196588, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-01196588
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01196588
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. repec:rjr:romjef:v::y:2018:i:1:p:124-139 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Rodrigo MENDIETA MUÑOZ & Nicola PONTAROLLO, 2018. "Territorial Growth in Ecuador: The Role of Economic Sectors," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(1), pages 124-139, December.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Agglomeration economies; Ecuador;

    JEL classification:

    • O54 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Latin America; Caribbean
    • L80 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - General
    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure
    • L60 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - General

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