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Le nouvel esprit du capitalisme

Author

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  • Eve Chiapello

    () (GREGH - Groupement de Recherche et d'Etudes en Gestion à HEC - HEC Paris - Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

  • Luc Boltanski

Abstract

Le capitalisme prospère ; la société se dégrade. Le profit croît, comme l'exclusion. La véritable crise n'est pas celle du capitalisme, mais celle de la critique du capitalisme. Trop souvent attachée à d'anciens schémas d'analyse, la critique conduit nombre de protestataires à se replier sur des modalités de défense efficaces dans le passé mais désormais largement inadaptées aux nouvelles formes du capitalisme redéployé. Cette crise, Eve Chiapello et Luc Boltanski, sociologues, l'analysent à la racine. Ils tracent les contours du nouvel esprit du capitalisme à partir d'une analyse inédite des textes de management qui ont nourri la pensée du patronat, irrigué les nouveaux modes d'organisation des entreprises : à partir du milieu des années 70, le capitalisme renonce au principe fordiste de l'organisation hiérarchique du travail pour développer une nouvelle organisation en réseau, fondée sur l'initiative des acteurs et l'autonomie relative de leur travail, mais au prix de leur sécurité matérielle et psychologique. Ce nouvel esprit du capitalisme a triomphé grâce à la formidable récupération de la " critique artiste ", celle qui, après Mai 68, n'avait eu de cesse de dénoncer l'aliénation de la vie quotidienne par l'alliance du Capital et de la bureaucratie. Une récupération qui a tué la " critique artiste ". Dans le même temps la " critique sociale " manquait le tournant du néocapitalisme et demeurait rivée aux vieux schémas de la production hiérarchisée ; on la trouva donc fort démunie lorsque l'hiver de la crise fut venu. C'est à une relance conjointe des deux critiques complémentaires du capitalisme qu'invite cet ouvrage sans équivalent.

Suggested Citation

  • Eve Chiapello & Luc Boltanski, 1999. "Le nouvel esprit du capitalisme," Post-Print hal-00680085, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:hal-00680085 Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://hal-hec.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00680085
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    esprit; capitalisme;

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