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Instruments théoriques de régulation environnementale : au-delà de la substituabilité entre les instruments et de l'efficacité économique comme seul critère de choix ?

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  • Saulnier, J.

Abstract

Le recours aux instruments économiques de régulation environnementale est désormais largement mis en avant comme un moyen de corriger les effets négatifs d’externalités telles que le rejet d’émissions polluantes. Les travaux récents sur la question du choix entre les instruments font toutefois apparaitre que la combinaison des instruments peut être un moyen de corriger certains problèmes généralement associés au recours à un seul type d’instrument. En outre, certaines études mettent en avant le contexte dans lequel se déroule la régulation comme un facteur limitant à la pleine réalisation de l’efficacité théorique potentielle de chaque instrument. Dans cet article, nous revenons sur ces questions en analysant, dans un cadre d’équilibre partiel, les propriétés d’efficacité théoriques des instruments de régulation que sont la norme, la taxe, la subvention, et les permis négociables. D’une part, nous confirmons que la combinaison des instruments est bien un moyen efficace de parvenir à la réduction des émissions souhaitée et qu’elle réduit le risque d’erreur du régulateur, celui-ci ayant plusieurs leviers à sa disposition pour éventuellement corriger son action. D’autre part, l’abandon progressif des hypothèses du cadre strict du modèle de régulation à l’optimum nous amène à considérer des critères additionnels de choix entre les instruments. Nous constatons notamment que le régulateur est contraint de composer avec les intérêts le plus souvent contradictoires des agents. Nous concluons, confirmant en cela les résultats existants dans la littérature, que, au-delà des seuls critères théoriques d’efficacité économique et environnementale, la comparaison entre différents instruments nécessite pour être conclue, d’intégrer le contexte empirique de leur déploiement.

Suggested Citation

  • Saulnier, J., 2007. "Instruments théoriques de régulation environnementale : au-delà de la substituabilité entre les instruments et de l'efficacité économique comme seul critère de choix ?," Working Papers 200711, Grenoble Applied Economics Laboratory (GAEL).
  • Handle: RePEc:gbl:wpaper:200711
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    File URL: https://gael.univ-grenoble-alpes.fr/sites/gael/files/doc-recherche/WP/A2007/gael2007-15.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    REGULATION; EXTERNALITE; ENVIRONNEMENT; PERMIS NEGOCIABLE; TAXE; SUBVENTION; NORME;

    JEL classification:

    • Q50 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - General
    • H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
    • Q58 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environmental Economics: Government Policy

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