Externalities, Nonconvexity, and Agglomeration
In this paper we argue that the impact of external scale economies and diseconomies on city size is not nearly as clear-cut as it is tacitly believed in urban economics. Similarly, that city-size distortions are not caused by externalities alone. Noncovexity, which prevents establishing the 'right' number of cities, may represent a source for city-size distortions which can be stronger than the standard resource misallocation resulting from external scale economies and diseconomies. It follows that a direct population dispersion policy is not just an inferior substitute to Pigovian taxes and subsidies but rather a useful complement.
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