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Creating and Enforcing Norms, with Special Reference to Sanctions


  • Posner, R.A.
  • Rasmusen, E.


Two central puzzles about social norms are now they are enforced and how they are created or modified. The sanctions for the violation of a norm can be categorized as automatic, guilt, shame, informational, bilateral-costly, and multilateral-costly. Problems in creating and modifying norms are related to which sanctions are employed. We use our analysis of enforcement and creation of norms to analyze the scope of feasible government action either to promote desirable norms or to repress undesirable ones.

Suggested Citation

  • Posner, R.A. & Rasmusen, E., 1998. "Creating and Enforcing Norms, with Special Reference to Sanctions," Papers 98-005, Indiana - Center for Econometric Model Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:fth:indian:98-005

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    9. Pinto, Brian, 1991. "Black markets for foreign exchange, real exchange rates and inflation," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1-2), pages 121-135, February.
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    JEL classification:

    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement


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