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Conceptualizing, Researching and Evaluating Democracy Promotion and Protection


  • Schmitter, P.C.
  • Brouwer, I.


This essay deals with democracy promotion & protection by established democracies. It first describes how the dynamics and understanding of regime transitions changes from the first to the present fourth wave of democratization. Subsequently, it defines democracy promotion & protection and described the different components of it. Finally, it discusses the issue of the strategies of the democracy promoters & protectors and takes a critical look at the issue of evaluating of their activities.

Suggested Citation

  • Schmitter, P.C. & Brouwer, I., 1999. "Conceptualizing, Researching and Evaluating Democracy Promotion and Protection," Papers 99/9, European Institute - Political and Social Sciences.
  • Handle: RePEc:fth:europs:99/9

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    JEL classification:

    • D70 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - General


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