IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

An analysis of the significant variation in psychostimulant use across the U.S


  • Farasat A.S. Bokhari

    () (Department of Economics, Florida State University)

  • Rick Mayes

    () (Department of Political Science, University of Richmond, Richmond)

  • Richard M. Scheffler

    () (Graduate School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA)


Objective: To provide a county-level profile of the area variation in psychostimulant use in the U.S. Methods: We sepa-rated 3,030 U.S. counties into two categories of “low” and “high” use of ADHD drugs (based on data from the Drug Enforce-ment Administration, DEA), and then compared them on the basis of their socio-demographic, economic, educational, and medical characteristics. Results: We found that there is a significant difference in the profile of counties that are above or below the national median rate of psychostimulant use (defined as grams/per 100K population). Compared to counties below the median level, counties above the median level have significantly greater population, higher per-capita income, lower unemployment rates, greater HMO penetration, more physicians per capita, and higher students-to-teacher ratios. The two sets of counties also differ significantly in their demographic composition. Conclusions: Our analysis of the DEA's ARCOS data shows that area variation in psychostimulant use is large and growing over time. U.S. counties differ significantly not only in their use of psychostimulant drugs, but also in their socioeconomic, demo-graphic, educational, and health system characteristics.

Suggested Citation

  • Farasat A.S. Bokhari & Rick Mayes & Richard M. Scheffler, 2003. "An analysis of the significant variation in psychostimulant use across the U.S," Working Papers wp2003_01_01, Department of Economics, Florida State University, revised Apr 2004.
  • Handle: RePEc:fsu:wpaper:wp2003_01_01
    Note: This paper was published in Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 2005; 14-4: 267–275 a copy is available from the publisher. If you need a copy of the original working paper, pls. contact the author.

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: First version, January 2003
    Download Restriction: no

    More about this item


    psychostimulants; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); methylphenidate; amphetamine; mental health; children; adolescents;

    JEL classification:

    • I11 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Analysis of Health Care Markets

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fsu:wpaper:wp2003_01_01. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dmitry Ryvkin). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.