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France et Allemagne : une histoire du désajustement européen

Author

Listed:
  • Xavier Ragot

    (OFCE CNRS Author-Workplace-Postal)

  • Mathilde Lemoigne

    (OFCE ENS ULM)

Abstract

La divergence économique entre la France et l’Allemagne depuis 1993 est impressionnante. Alors que les deux pays étaient dans des situations comparables à la fin des années 1990, l’Allemagne est aujourd’hui au voisinage du plein emploi - en dépit d’inégalités en hausse - et est un des pays les plus exportateurs du monde. La France connait un chômage historique et voit ses performances commerciales se dégrader continûment. Plusieurs explications à cette divergence ont été proposées. Cet article quantifie la contribution particulière de la modération salariale allemande débutant outre-Rhin au milieu des années 1990 sur l’écart de performances économiques franco-allemand. En effet, les salaires allemands sont restés extraordinairement stables après la réunification allemande, et ce essentiellement dans les services. À l’aide d’un modèle quantitatif de commerce international, nous trouvons que la modération salariale allemande est responsable de l’ordre de la moitié de l’écart de performances à l’exportation de la France par rapport à l’Allemagne, et explique environ 2% du taux de chômage français. Le problème de l’offre en France est essentiellement le résultat du désajustement européen.

Suggested Citation

  • Xavier Ragot & Mathilde Lemoigne, 2015. "France et Allemagne : une histoire du désajustement européen," Documents de Travail de l'OFCE 2015-17, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE).
  • Handle: RePEc:fce:doctra:1517
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    Cited by:

    1. Xavier Ragot, 2016. "Le retour de l’économie keynésienne," Revue d'économie financière, Association d'économie financière, vol. 0(1), pages 173-186.
    2. Xavier Timbeau & Signe Dahl & Georg Feigl & Xavier Timbeau & Xavier Timbeau & Andrew Watt, 2016. "The Elusive Recovery. Independent Annual Growth Survey (iAGS) 2017," Working Paper Reihe der AK Wien - Materialien zu Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft 164, Kammer für Arbeiter und Angestellte für Wien, Abteilung Wirtschaftswissenschaft und Statistik.

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