IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

An Essay on the Relationship between "Cool Japan" and Trade Policy (Japanese)


  • MIHARA Ryotaro


Although the Cool Japan policy consists mostly of export promotion policies and thus is deeply related to trade policy, its trade-related issues have not been investigated in detail. If Japan is to further such export promotion policies, however, it is inevitable that these issues must be managed. This paper thus discusses how such export promotion policies could be understood from a trade policy perspective. This paper first takes an overview of the Cool Japan export promotion policies (backgrounds, definitions, objectives, approaches, examples, evaluations, etc.), and then proposes trade-related issues to be considered when driving them forward. Such issues include (1) how the "purpose" of the Cool Japan export promotion policies, i.e. the spread of Japan's lifestyle and values to the world's consumers, might be disputed by other countries; (2) Cool Japan export promotion policies suggest that the long-accepted dichotomy of promoting free trade in cultural goods/services versus protecting cultural diversity is, in fact, not a trade-off, and that Japan may be able to act as a "third party" in trade negotiations for cultural goods/services to achieve both at the same time; (3) "Corporate foreign policy"—which is proposed to be necessary in forming truly effective World Trade Organization (WTO) related trade policy—might also be indispensable in forming truly effective Cool Japan export promotion policies.

Suggested Citation

  • MIHARA Ryotaro, 2013. "An Essay on the Relationship between "Cool Japan" and Trade Policy (Japanese)," Discussion Papers (Japanese) 13051, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
  • Handle: RePEc:eti:rdpsjp:13051

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Jose Manuel Campa & Linda S. Goldberg, 1997. "The evolving external orientation of manufacturing: a profile of four countries," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Jul, pages 53-81.
    2. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
    3. Holger Görg & Aoife Hanley & Eric Strobl, 2008. "Productivity effects of international outsourcing: evidence from plant-level data," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 41(2), pages 670-688, May.
    4. Pablo, Agnese & Joan Enric, Ricart, 2009. "Offshoring: Facts and numbers at the country level," MPRA Paper 16503, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Amiti, Mary & Wei, Shang-Jin, 2006. "Service Offshoring, Productivity and Employment: Evidence from the US," CEPR Discussion Papers 5475, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. Pablo, Agnese, 2009. "Employment effects of offshoring. An application to Japanese industries, 1980-2005," MPRA Paper 16506, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Yamashita, Nobuaki & Fukao, Kyoji, 2010. "Expansion abroad and jobs at home: Evidence from Japanese multinational enterprises," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 88-97, March.
    8. Grossman, Sanford J & Hart, Oliver D, 1986. "The Costs and Benefits of Ownership: A Theory of Vertical and Lateral Integration," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(4), pages 691-719, August.
    9. Pol Antras & Elhanan Helpman, 2004. "Global Sourcing," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 112(3), pages 552-580, June.
    10. Alexander Hijzen & Tomohiko Inui & Yasuyuki Todo, 2010. "Does Offshoring Pay? Firm-Level Evidence From Japan," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 48(4), pages 880-895, October.
    11. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
    12. Head, Keith & Ries, John, 2002. "Offshore production and skill upgrading by Japanese manufacturing firms," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 81-105, October.
    13. JINJI Naoto & ZHANG Xingyuan & HARUNA Shoji, 2011. "Does Tobin's q Matter for Firms' Choices of Globalization Mode?," Discussion papers 11061, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    14. Yamashita, Nobuaki, 2008. "The impact of production fragmentation on skill upgrading: New evidence from Japanese manufacturing," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 545-565, December.
    15. Tomomi Tanaka & Colin F. Camerer & Quang Nguyen, 2010. "Risk and Time Preferences: Linking Experimental and Household Survey Data from Vietnam," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(1), pages 557-571, March.
    16. repec:hrv:faseco:4784029 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. ITO Banri & WAKASUGI Ryuhei & TOMIURA Eiichi, 2008. "Offshoring and Productivity: Evidence from Japanese Firm-level Data," Discussion papers 08028, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    18. Sanghoon Ahn & Kyoji Fukao & Keiko Ito, 2008. "The Impact of Outsourcing on the Japanese and South Korean Labor Markets: International Outsourcing of Intermediate Inputs and Assembly in East Asia," Global COE Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series gd08-001, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    19. Stephen Ross Yeaple, 2006. "Offshoring, Foreign Direct Investment, and the Structure of U.S. Trade," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 4(2-3), pages 602-611, 04-05.
    20. Agnese, Pablo, 2009. "Japan and her dealings with offshoring: An empirical analysis with aggregate data," IESE Research Papers D/793, IESE Business School.
    21. Tomiura, Eiichi, 2007. "Foreign outsourcing, exporting, and FDI: A productivity comparison at the firm level," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(1), pages 113-127, May.
    22. Cramer, J. S. & Hartog, J. & Jonker, N. & Van Praag, C. M., 2002. "Low risk aversion encourages the choice for entrepreneurship: an empirical test of a truism," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 29-36, May.
    23. Eiichi Tomiura & Banri Ito & Ryuhei Wakasugi, 2011. "Offshore Outsourcing Decision And Capital Intensity: Firm‐Level Relationships," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 49(2), pages 364-378, April.
    24. Ryuhei Wakasugi & Banri Ito & Eiichi Tomiura, 2008. "Offshoring and Trade in East Asia: A Statistical Analysis," Asian Economic Papers, MIT Press, vol. 7(3), pages 101-124, Fall.
    25. Pol Antràs, 2003. "Firms, Contracts, and Trade Structure," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 118(4), pages 1375-1418.
    26. Yongmin Chen & Ignatius J. Horstmann & James R. Markusen, 2012. "Physical capital, knowledge capital, and the choice between FDI and outsourcing," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 45(1), pages 1-15, February.
    27. Shane Frederick & George Loewenstein & Ted O'Donoghue, 2002. "Time Discounting and Time Preference: A Critical Review," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 40(2), pages 351-401, June.
    28. TODO Yasuyuki & SATO Hitoshi, 2011. "Effects of CEOs' Characteristics on Internationalization of Small and Medium Enterprises in Japan," Discussion papers 11026, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    29. Keiko Ito & Kiyoyasu Tanaka, 2012. "Does Material and Service Offshoring Improve Domestic Productivity? Evidence from Japanese Manufacturing Industries," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Quantitative Analysis Of Newly Evolving Patterns Of International Trade Fragmentation, Offshoring of Activities, and Vertical Intra-Industry Trade, chapter 2, pages 49-99 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    30. Mary Amiti & Shang-Jin Wei, 2006. "Service Offshoring and Productivity: Evidence from the United States," NBER Working Papers 11926, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eti:rdpsjp:13051. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (KUMAGAI, Akiko). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.