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Wastewater Irrigation, Heavy Metals and the Profitability of Rice Cultivation – Investigating the East Calcutta Wetlands in India


  • Vivekananda Mukherjee
  • Gautam Gupta


In India, as in many developing countries, wastewater is often used to irrigate crops. This undoubtedly helps to recycle useful nutrients through the food chain, but, as there can be toxic chemicals in the wastewater, it also poses risks to human health and may reduce the profitability of cultivated crops. The East Calcutta Wetlands have been a repository for untreated sewage water from the city of Kolkata for decades. They also sustain local agriculture and fisheries activities. But how good is untreated water for agriculture and does wastewater affect the profitability of rice cultivation? [SANDEE Policy Brief 57-11]. URL:[].

Suggested Citation

  • Vivekananda Mukherjee & Gautam Gupta, 2012. "Wastewater Irrigation, Heavy Metals and the Profitability of Rice Cultivation – Investigating the East Calcutta Wetlands in India," Working Papers id:4811, eSocialSciences.
  • Handle: RePEc:ess:wpaper:id:4811
    Note: Institutional Papers

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