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Finland and the case of a Northern dimension for the EU: Inclusion by bargaining or arguing?


  • Børge Romsloe


In 1997, Finland presented a major foreign policy initiative labelled the ‘Northern Dimension’ (ND) that was quickly included as a part of the EU’s external relations. Many analysts seem to argue that the EU’s foreign policy is a big power concert where intergovernmental bargaining either results in a compromise, where none of the three big states get exactly what they want, or the negotiations break down because of conflicting interests. However, this paper suggests that the big states sometimes acquire new or change existing preferences as a result of “well” argued proposals from the small states, i.e. that learning takes place.

Suggested Citation

  • Børge Romsloe, 2005. "Finland and the case of a Northern dimension for the EU: Inclusion by bargaining or arguing?," ARENA Working Papers 31, ARENA.
  • Handle: RePEc:erp:arenax:p0211

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    Cited by:

    1. Peter Viggo Jakobsen, 2009. "Small States, Big Influence: The Overlooked Nordic Influence on the Civilian ESDP," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47, pages 81-102, January.

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    deliberative democracy; policy analysis; CFSP/ESDP; Finland; international relations;

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