Determinants of Productivity in Morocco: the Role of Trade?
The aim of this paper is to explore the determinants of productivity and productivity change in the Moroccan economy, with a particular interest in examining the role of international trade in impacting upon productivity levels. Methodologically this is achieved through a two-stage methodology. First we focus on productivity, and productivity change and its determinants at the micro (firm) level. The underlying data we have comprises both detailed cross section data, as well as slightly less detailed time series data. In the first stage then we derive estimates of firm and sectoral level productivity, and examine their evolution over time. For this first stage we derive the firm level productivity measures using both econometric and index number approaches. The second stage of the work is concerned with understanding and explaining the differences in productivity across the firms/sectors, and in particular of the role of trade liberalization in this. This involves regressing the differences in productivity on a range of key explanatory variables. This analysis is carried out at the firm level, and for different time periods. Our results suggest that changes in firm level productivity are relatively modest (in particular in the latter half of the period), and that there are quite considerable changes in aggregate productivity arising from a relatively high degree of entry and exit of firms, and from changes in the shares of incumbent firms. This suggests clearly that it is changing market shares, and the entry and exit from the industry that are key to understanding the aggregate productivity changes. It also suggests that is important to consider carefully the institutitional, financial and regulatory framework within which firms operate, and thus the constraints they face. Central to the methodology and the results in this report is the need to recognize the importance of firm level heterogeneity. The results indicate that the relationship between key variables such as import or export openness can vary importantly according to the size (class) of the firm. It is thus important to understand the sources of these differences in these relationships better, and secondly to tailor policy accordingly. Hence, while overall we find a positive relationship between exports and productivity we also find that the relationship between exporting and productivity is weakest for large firms.
|Date of creation:||Nov 2007|
|Date of revision:||Nov 2007|
|Publication status:||Published by The Economic Research Forum (ERF)|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 21 Al-Sad Al Aaly St. Dokki, Giza|
Web page: http://www.erf.org.eg
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Sofronis K. Clerides & Saul Lach & James R. Tybout, 1998.
"Is Learning by Exporting Important? Micro-Dynamic Evidence from Colombia, Mexico, and Morocco,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
Oxford University Press, vol. 113(3), pages 903-947.
- Sofronis Clerides & Saul Lach & James Tybout, 1996. "Is "learning-by-exporting" important? Micro-dynamic evidence from Colombia, Mexico and Morocco," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 96-30, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Sofronis Clerides & Saul Lach & James Tybout, 1996. "Is "Learning-by-Exporting" Important? Micro-Dynamic Evidence from Colombia, Mexico and Morocco," NBER Working Papers 5715, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Simeon Djankov & Bernard Hoekman, 2000. "Market discipline and corporate efficiency: evidence from Bulgaria," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 33(1), pages 190-212, February.
- Saul Estrin & Jozef Konings & Zbigniew Zolkiewski & Manuela Angelucci, 2001.
"The Effect of Ownership and Competitive Pressure on Firm Performance in Transition Countries. Micro Evidence from Bulgaria, Romania and Poland,"
LICOS Discussion Papers
10401, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
- Angelucci, Manuela & Estrin, Saul & Konings, Jozef & Zólkiewski, Zbigniew, 2001. "The Effect of Ownership and Competitive Pressure on Firm Performance in Transition Countries: Micro Evidence from Bulgaria, Romania and Poland," CEPR Discussion Papers 2985, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Manuela Angelucci & Saul Estrin & Jozef Konings & Zbigniew Zolkiewski, 2002. "The Effect of Ownership and Competitive Pressure on Firm Performance in Transition Countries: Micro Evidence from Bulgaria, Romania and Poland," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 434, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- Edwards, Sebastian, 1998.
"Openness, Productivity and Growth: What Do We Really Know?,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(447), pages 383-98, March.
- Sebastian Edwards, 1997. "Openness, Productivity and Growth: What Do We Really Know?," NBER Working Papers 5978, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Tybout, James & de Melo, Jaime & Corbo, Vittorio, 1990.
"The effects of trade reforms on scale and technical efficiency : new evidence from Chile,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
481, The World Bank.
- Tybout, James & de Melo, Jamie & Corbo, Vittorio, 1991. "The effects of trade reforms on scale and technical efficiency : New evidence from Chile," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3-4), pages 231-250, November.
- Haddad, Mona, 1993. "How trade liberalization affected productivity in Morocco," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1096, The World Bank.
- Mary Amiti, 2000. "Trade Liberalisation of Intermediate Inputs," Australian Economic Review, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, vol. 33(4), pages 299-302.
- Van Biesebroeck, Johannes, 2008.
"The Sensitivity of Productivity Estimates,"
Journal of Business & Economic Statistics,
American Statistical Association, vol. 26, pages 311-328.
- Olley, G Steven & Pakes, Ariel, 1996.
"The Dynamics of Productivity in the Telecommunications Equipment Industry,"
Econometric Society, vol. 64(6), pages 1263-97, November.
- George S Olley & Ariel Pakes, 1992. "The Dynamics Of Productivity In The Telecommunications Equipment Industry," Working Papers 92-2, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
- G. Steven Olley & Ariel Pakes, 1992. "The Dynamics of Productivity in the Telecommunications Equipment Industry," NBER Working Papers 3977, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Edward Oczkowski & Kishor Sharma, 2001. "Imperfect Competition, Returns To Scale and Productivity Growth In Australian Manufacturing: A Smooth Transition Approach To Trade Liberalisation," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(2), pages 99-113, June.
- Caves, Douglas W & Christensen, Laurits R & Diewert, W Erwin, 1982. "The Economic Theory of Index Numbers and the Measurement of Input, Output, and Productivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(6), pages 1393-1414, November.
- Richard Blundell & Steve Bond, 1999.
"GMM estimation with persistent panel data: an application to production functions,"
IFS Working Papers
W99/04, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Richard Blundell & Stephen Bond, 2000. "GMM Estimation with persistent panel data: an application to production functions," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 321-340.
- Jeffrey Sachs & Andrew Warner, 1995.
"Economic Reform and the Progress of Global Integration,"
Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers
1733, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Jeffrey D. Sachs & Andrew Warner, 1995. "Economic Reform and the Process of Global Integration," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 26(1, 25th A), pages 1-118.
- Diewert, W. E., 1976. "Exact and superlative index numbers," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 115-145, May.
- Petia Topalova, 2004. "Trade Liberalization and Firm Productivity; The Case of India," IMF Working Papers 04/28, International Monetary Fund.
- Charnes, A. & Cooper, W. W. & Rhodes, E., 1978. "Measuring the efficiency of decision making units," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 2(6), pages 429-444, November.
- David T. Coe & Alexander W. Hoffmaister, 1999. "Are There International R&D Spillovers Among Randomly Matched Trade Partners? A Response to Keller," IMF Working Papers 99/18, International Monetary Fund.
- Caves, Douglas W & Christensen, Laurits R & Diewert, W Erwin, 1982. "Multilateral Comparisons of Output, Input, and Productivity Using Superlative Index Numbers," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 92(365), pages 73-86, March.
- Rodríguez, Francisco & Rodrik, Dani, 1999.
"Trade Policy and Economic Growth: A Sceptic's Guide to the Cross-National Evidence,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
2143, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Francisco Rodriguez & Dani Rodrik, 2001. "Trade Policy and Economic Growth: A Skeptic's Guide to the Cross-National Evidence," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2000, Volume 15, pages 261-338 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Francisco Rodriguez & Dani Rodrik, 1999. "Trade Policy and Economic Growth: a Skeptic's Guide to the Cross-National Evidence," Working Papers 9912, Economic Research Forum, revised Apr 1999.
- David Greenaway & Joakim Gullstrand & Richard Kneller, 2005. "Exporting May Not Always Boost Firm Productivity," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 141(4), pages 561-582, December.
- Maskus, Keith E & Konan, Denise Eby, 1997. "Trade Liberalization in Egypt," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 1(3), pages 275-93, October.
- Ana Fernandes, 2002. "Trade Policy, Trade Volumes and Plant-Level Productivity in Colombian Manufacturing Industries," Working Papers 847, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
- Harrison, Ann E., 1994. "Productivity, imperfect competition and trade reform : Theory and evidence," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(1-2), pages 53-73, February.
- Tybout, James R. & Westbrook, M. Daniel, 1995. "Trade liberalization and the dimensions of efficiency change in Mexican manufacturing industries," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1-2), pages 53-78, August.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:erg:wpaper:0716. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Namees Nabeel)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.