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Convergence of real GDP per capita in the EU15. How do the Accession Countries fit in?



The EU15 countries’ real GDP per capita levels adjusted for purchasing power converged in 1960–2001. Convergence occurred in two spells, in 1960–73 and 1986–2001, with an interim period of stagnation. In this paper, we analyse both s and b convergence and discuss the impact of EU membership, trade and investment. We also analyse how seven accession countries fit into the historical picture of the EU15 area. The CEE countries are wellpositioned to catch up with the incumbent EU countries. After the mid-1990s, an increase in productivity and high investment rates have supported economic growth in the accession countries. Still, the experience of the EU15 countries shows that convergence cannot be taken for granted.

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  • Ville Kaitila, 2004. "Convergence of real GDP per capita in the EU15. How do the Accession Countries fit in?," Economics Working Papers 025, European Network of Economic Policy Research Institutes.
  • Handle: RePEc:epr:enepwp:025

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    1. Iulia Andreea Bucur, 2012. "National And Regional Coordinates Of The Real Convergence Process Intensity In The Enlarged European Union," CES Working Papers, Centre for European Studies, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, vol. 4(3), pages 274-287, September.
    2. Zaytsev, Alexander, 2014. "Оценка Догоняющего Развития На Уровне Стран И Регионов: Методический Комментарий
      [Assessing the catching-up on country and regional level: methodological comments]
      ," MPRA Paper 57375, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Milena Nikolova & Boris Nikolaev, 2017. "Does Joining the EU Make You Happy? Evidence from Bulgaria and Romania," Journal of Happiness Studies, Springer, vol. 18(6), pages 1593-1623, December.
    4. Vojinović, Borut & Acharya, Sanjaya & Próchniak, Mariusz, 2009. "Convergence Analysis Among the Ten European Transition Economies," Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics, Hitotsubashi University, vol. 50(2), pages 17-35, December.
    5. Welsch, Heinz & Bonn, Udo, 2008. "Economic convergence and life satisfaction in the European Union," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 1153-1167, June.
    6. repec:jes:wpaper:y:2012:v:4:p:274-287 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Lau, Marco Chi Keung & Fung, Ka Wai Terence, 2013. "Convergence in Health Care Expenditure of 14 EU Countries: New Evidence from Non-linear Panel Unit Root Test," MPRA Paper 52871, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Andreea Vass, 2005. "Romania and the trade and the development approaches to CEE convergence with the EU, under the competitive pressures of integration," IWE Working Papers 151, Institute for World Economics - Centre for Economic and Regional Studies- Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
    9. Susanne Lechner & Renate Ohr, 2011. "The right of withdrawal in the treaty of Lisbon: a game theoretic reflection on different decision processes in the EU," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 32(3), pages 357-375, December.
    10. Junhua Li & Wenli Cheng, 2015. "Country Size, Economic Structure and Transaction Efficiency: An Asymmetric Spatial General Equilibrium Model of Income Differences across Nations," Monash Economics Working Papers 17-15, Monash University, Department of Economics.
    11. Valentin Cojanu, 2007. "A Discussion on Competitive Groups of Countries within the European Area of Integration," South-Eastern Europe Journal of Economics, Association of Economic Universities of South and Eastern Europe and the Black Sea Region, vol. 5(2), pages 185-202.
    12. Daniel Stavárek & Lucie Tomanova, 2014. "Is the Region of Visegrad Countries on the Track to the Euro Area? Recent Evidence from the Real Convergence Perspective," Economy of region, Centre for Economic Security, Institute of Economics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, vol. 1(3), pages 130-139.
    13. repec:spr:soinre:v:133:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1007_s11205-016-1357-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Zaytsev, Alexander, 2014. "Душевой Ввп И Производительность Труда В России: Было Ли Догоняющее Развитие?
      [Russia`s per capita and per hour GDP dynamics: have we seen the cathing-up?]
      ," MPRA Paper 56312, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Welsch, Heinz & Bonn, Udo, 2006. "Is there a "real divergence" in the European Union? A comment," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 259-265, June.
    16. José M. Pastor & Lorenzo Serrano, 2012. "European Integration and Inequality among Countries: A Lifecycle Income Analysis," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(1), pages 186-199, February.
    17. Kaitila, Ville, 2004. "Integration and Conditional Convergence in the Enlarged EU Area," Discussion Papers 935, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
    18. Nicholas Apergis & Tsangyao Chang & Christina Christou & Rangan Gupta, 2017. "Convergence of Health Care Expenditures Across the US States: A Reconsideration," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 133(1), pages 303-316, August.
    19. Zarembova, Andrea & Lyocsa, Stefan & Baumöhl, Eduard, 2012. "The Real Convergence of CEE Countries: A Study of Real GDP per capita," EconStor Open Access Articles, ZBW - German National Library of Economics, pages 642-656..
    20. Markandya, Anil & Pedroso-Galinato, Suzette & Streimikiene, Dalia, 2006. "Energy intensity in transition economies: Is there convergence towards the EU average?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 121-145, January.
    21. Chi Lau & Ka Fung & Lee Pugalis, 2014. "Is health care expenditure across Europe converging? Findings from the application of a nonlinear panel unit root test," Eurasian Business Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 4(2), pages 137-156, December.
    22. E. Tsanana & X. Chapsa & C. Katrakilidis, 2016. "Is growth corrupted or bureaucratic? Panel evidence from the enlarged EU," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(33), pages 3131-3147, July.

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