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Early-stage entrepreneurial activity in the European Union: some issues and challenges

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Listed:
  • Niels Bosma
  • Sander Wennekers
  • Jolanda Hessels
  • Stephen Hunt

Abstract

In this paper the authors present the levels of Total early-stage Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA) across 16 Member States of the European Union participating in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM - 2004 research 2). They also compare the average TEA rate for these 16 EU-countries participating in GEM with the average for some other OECD-countries, further referred to as 'Anglo'-countries: the United States of America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Next, they relate the striking differences in TEA across countries to underlying cultural and institutional differences. And also they examine some other current issues associated with entrepreneurial activity in Europe, such as ageing of the population, and technology-based start-ups.

Suggested Citation

  • Niels Bosma & Sander Wennekers & Jolanda Hessels & Stephen Hunt, 2005. "Early-stage entrepreneurial activity in the European Union: some issues and challenges," Scales Research Reports N200502, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:eim:papers:n200502
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    File URL: http://www.entrepreneurship-sme.eu/pdf-ez/N200502.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    4. Danny Miller & Jean-Marie Toulouse, 1986. "Chief Executive Personality and Corporate Strategy and Structure in Small Firms," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 32(11), pages 1389-1409, November.
    5. Jacques Cremer, 1980. "A Partial Theory of the Optimal Organization of a Bureaucracy," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 11(2), pages 683-693, Autumn.
    6. Levy, Margi & Powell, Philip, 1998. "SME Flexibility and the Role of Information Systems," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 11(2), pages 183-196, September.
    7. Oliver E. Williamson, 1967. "Hierarchical Control and Optimum Firm Size," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 75, pages 123-123.
    8. Nickell, Stephen J, 1996. "Competition and Corporate Performance," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(4), pages 724-746, August.
    9. Jeremy C. Stein, 2002. "Information Production and Capital Allocation: Decentralized versus Hierarchical Firms," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(5), pages 1891-1921, October.
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    11. Luis Garicano, 2000. "Hierarchies and the Organization of Knowledge in Production," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(5), pages 874-904, October.
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    Cited by:

    1. Niels Bosma & Veronique Schutjens, 2011. "Understanding regional variation in entrepreneurial activity and entrepreneurial attitude in Europe," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 47(3), pages 711-742, December.

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