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Integração regional e conteúdo de trabalho do comércio exterior brasileiro

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  • Castilho, Marta Reis

Abstract

O Brasil está atualmente participando das negociações para aprofundamento e/ou realização de diversos acordos de livre comércio - Mercosul, ALCA, União Européia, Comunidade Andina, África do Sul, etc. A composição do comércio brasileiro difere bastante entre estes parceiros. Enquanto a pauta de exportações do Brasil para a América Latina, por exemplo, se caracteriza por um maior peso de produtos manufaturados e um maior grau de elaboração, no outro extremo, tem-se uma pauta de exportações para a Europa concentrada em bens primários ou pouco elaborados. Pelo lado das importações, também existem diferenças segundo as regiões de origem, ainda que menos acentuadas do que para as exportações. Estas diferenças na composição dos fluxos de comércio, assim como a diferente cobertura dos acordos em negociação abrem perspectivas diferentes destes acordos em termos de impacto sobre o mercado de trabalho. Este trabalho utilizou o cálculo do conteúdo em trabalho do comércio para fazer uma avaliação dos impactos dos acordos comerciais sobre o emprego e o mercado de trabalho no Brasil, distinguindo os efeitos segundo o grau de qualificação dos trabalhadores. Segundo os presentes cálculos, o Brasil é um exportador líquido de trabalho: o saldo de trabalho embutido nas exportações e importações corresponde a 4,8% do emprego total da economia brasileira. Do lado das exportações, o trabalho embutido corresponde a 11,9% do emprego total e, do lado das importações, esta parcela é de 7,1%. Embora o Brasil seja exportador líquido de todas as categorias de trabalho, a contribuição mais significativa para o saldo total de empregos é da categoria de trabalhadores pouco qualificados (que possuem de 0 a 7 anos de estudo). A contribuição da categoria de qualificação intermediária é pequena e a de maior qualificação, quase nula (os saldos em termos de trabalho embutido nas exportações líquidas representam, respectivamente, 2% e 01% do emprego total de cada categoria). Estes resultados ilustram um resultado conhecido da teoria de comércio internacional segundo o qual a liberalização gera ganhos diferentes segundo os agentes, obrigando os elaboradores de política econômica a arbitrarem entre ganhadores e perdedores e criando, possivelmente, mecanismos de transferências para compensar as perdas. De maneira mais concreta, fica evidente que, se for considerada a quantidade de emprego como critério para avaliação dos acordos comerciais, é possível que o efeito dos acordos sobre o emprego total seja pequeno ou até mesmo negativo. E que, a arbitragem deverá ser feita entre qual tipo de trabalho promover ou proteger.

Suggested Citation

  • Castilho, Marta Reis, 2004. "Integração regional e conteúdo de trabalho do comércio exterior brasileiro," Oficina de la CEPAL en Brasilia (Estudios e Investigaciones) 37924, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
  • Handle: RePEc:ecr:col127:37924
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