The Politics of WTO Enforcement Mechanisms
This paper analyzes the influence of domestic political considerations by disputing governments on the WTO enforcement outcome, following a violation ruling against the defendant. Since a different mix of import or export sectors in the disputing countries will benefit from the alternative enforcement outcomes â€“ compliance, compensation, retaliation, and the status quo, they become competing forces that steer the strategic interactions between the disputing governments. This paper first studies the complainantâ€™s retaliation capacity and strategy in formulating the retaliation list, and then examines the scope of settlement possibilities between the disputing parties. The results of the paper provide a synopsis of the disputing governmentsâ€™ political payoffs under the alternative enforcement scenarios and the conditions that determine the outcome of the implementation
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