IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Stock options and managerial incentives to invest


  • Nohel, Tom

    (Loyola University Chicago)

  • Steven Todd


We examine the effect of stock options on managerial incentives to invest. Our chief innovation is a model wherein firm value and executive decisions are endogenous. Numerical solutions to our model show that managerial incentives to invest are multi-dimensional and highly sensitive to option strike prices, the manager's wealth, degree of diversification, risk aversion, and career concerns. We find that over-investment problems are far more likely and far more severe that many researchers suggest. Finally, firm value is not a strictly increasing function of a manager's incentive compensation or conventional pay-for-performance metrics. Stronger managerial incentives to invest can benefit or harm a firm. Our results should send a cautionary signal to researchers who study managerial behavior. It is not sufficient to rely on one-dimensional risk-neutral valuation metrics, such as pay-for-performance, to describe the degree of incentive alignment between managers and shareholders.

Suggested Citation

  • Nohel, Tom & Steven Todd, 2002. "Stock options and managerial incentives to invest," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2002 149, Royal Economic Society.
  • Handle: RePEc:ecj:ac2002:149

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: full text
    Download Restriction: no


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Thierry Poulain-Rehm, 2003. "Stock-options, décisions financières des dirigeants et création de valeur de l'entreprise:le cas français," Revue Finance Contrôle Stratégie,, vol. 6(3), pages 79-116, September.

    More about this item

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ecj:ac2002:149. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Christopher F. Baum). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.