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Inégalités et revenus sur le cycle de vie : Analyse sur des données biographiques malgaches

Listed author(s):
  • Charlotte Guénard



This paper tries to distinguish between age and generation effects in the life cycle evolution of living standards of individuals. It is based on biographical data from a survey of 1998 made in Antananarivo and provided by the Madio project in Madagascar. Between 1965 and 1995, we observe both a diminution of living standards and an increase of inequalities in Antananarivo. In 35 years, the decrease of consumption has been continuous: the real per capita consumption of households decreased by 44.5 % between 1961 and 1995. At the same time, per capita GDP decreased by 36.8 % at the national level and private consumption by 46.8 %. In this context, what was the evolution of life cycle living standards of individuals? Have the youngest lower income compared to the elder at the same age? The analysis consists in the elaboration of a method of estimation of incomes during life trajectories of individuals of three different and successive generations. A double approach is used: a monetary analysis and another which takes into account living conditions of surveyed individuals during all their life. The evolution of inequality during the 1968-1998 period based on the preceding method is also studied to answer to two fundamental questions: which mobility in income scale do we observe in a long time period? What are the inequalities between individuals and cohorts when we evaluate it on the all life cycle? Finally, in the recent period (1988-1998), we shed the light on the education differentials between cohorts in the study of inequalities. _________________________________ Cette analyse tente de distinguer les effets d’âge et de génération dans l’évolution des niveaux de vie des individus sur le cycle de vie grâce à l’exploitation d’une enquête biographique réalisée en 1998 dans l’agglomération d’Antananarivo dans le cadre du projet Madio. Sur la période 1960-1995, on observe à la fois une chute des niveaux de vie et un accroissement des inégalités à Antananarivo. En 35 ans, la régression de la consommation a été continue: la consommation par tête des ménages, en volume, a chuté de 44,5 % entre 1961 et 1995. Dans le même temps, au niveau national, le PIB par tête a chuté de 36,8 % et la consommation privée de 46,8 %. Dans ce contexte, comment le niveau de vie a-t-il varié au cours du cycle de vie des individus? Les jeunes plus nombreux perçoivent–ils des revenus inférieurs à ceux de leurs aînés au même âge? L’analyse menée consiste en l’élaboration d’une méthode d’estimation des revenus sur les trajectoires de vie d’individus appartenant à trois générations successives. Une double approche est retenue: une analyse monétaire et une prise en compte des conditions de vie des individus enquêtés. L’évolution des inégalités sur la période 1968- 1998 sur la base de la méthodologie retenue est également étudiée pour répondre à deux questions essentielles : quelle mobilité dans l’échelle des revenus observe-t-on sur longue période ? Quelles sont les inégalités entre les individus ou les cohortes lorsqu’on les évalue sur tout le cycle de vie ? Enfin, la période récente (1988-1998) fait l’objet d’un éclairage particulier sur l’éducation différenciée des cohortes dans l’étude des inégalités.

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Paper provided by DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation) in its series Working Papers with number DT/2001/20.

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Length: 27 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2001
Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt200120
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