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The 'DICE' Model: Background and Structure of a Dynamic Integrated Climate-Economy Model of the Economics of Global Warming



This study is designed to present the methodological and technical assumptions and the results behind the Dynamic Integrated model of Climate and the Economy (the DICE model). It is a model that attempts to use the tools of modern economics to determine an efficient strategy for coping with the threat of global warming. The fundamental premise behind this study is that societies should undertake environmental policies only when their benefits, broadly construed, exceed their costs and that the level of environmental control should be at that point where the incremental benefits of additional controls no longer exceed the incremental costs. In the area of global warming, this general strategy is easy to articulate and difficult to execute. The work embodied in this study lays out one approach -- the use of dynamic economic optimization -- to the construction of an efficient control strategy.

Suggested Citation

  • William D. Nordhaus, 1992. "The 'DICE' Model: Background and Structure of a Dynamic Integrated Climate-Economy Model of the Economics of Global Warming," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1009, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  • Handle: RePEc:cwl:cwldpp:1009

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    1. 地球を冷やす安価な方法
      by ikeda_nobuo in 池田信夫 blog on 2009-11-01 11:02:50
    2. We’re massively underestimating climate costs, experts warn
      by John Upton in Grist Business and Technology on 2014-06-17 04:10:04
    3. We’re massively underestimating climate costs, experts warn
      by ? in Grist on 2014-06-17 04:10:00


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    Cited by:

    1. Changyi Liu & Xueli Shi & Guoquan Hu & Qiufeng Liu & Yunwei Dai & Wenyan Zhou & Chao Wei & Yunfei Cao, 2019. "A simple earth system model for C3IAM: based on BCC_CSM1.1 and CMIP5 simulations," Natural Hazards: Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, Springer;International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, vol. 99(3), pages 1311-1325, December.
    2. Parson, Edward A, 1995. "Integrated assessment and environmental policy making : In pursuit of usefulness," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 23(4-5), pages 463-475.
    3. Bondarev, Anton & Greiner, Alfred, 2020. "Global warming and technical change: Multiple steady-states and policy options," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 62(C).
    4. Matthew E. Kahn & Kamiar Mohaddes & Ryan N. C. Ng & M. Hashem Pesaran & Mehdi Raissi & Jui-Chung Yang, 2019. "Long-Term Macroeconomic Effects of Climate Change: A Cross-Country Analysis," IMF Working Papers 2019/215, International Monetary Fund.
    5. Naqvi, Asjad & Stockhammer, Engelbert, 2018. "Directed Technological Change in a Post-Keynesian Ecological Macromodel," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 154(C), pages 168-188.
    6. Withers, Mitch R. & Malina, Robert & Barrett, Steven R.H., 2015. "Carbon, climate, and economic breakeven times for biofuel from woody biomass from managed forests," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 112(C), pages 45-52.
    7. Zakerinia, Saleh, 2018. "Understanding the Role of Transportation in Meeting California’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target: A Focus on Technology Forcing Policies, Interactions with the Electric Sector and Mitigation," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt0r69m651, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    8. Olli Tahvonen, 1995. "Dynamics of pollution control when damage is sensitive to the rate of pollution accumulation," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 5(1), pages 9-27, January.
    9. Wei, Yi-Ming & Mi, Zhi-Fu & Huang, Zhimin, 2015. "Climate policy modeling: An online SCI-E and SSCI based literature review," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 57(PA), pages 70-84.
    10. Plambeck, Erica L. & Hope, Chris & Anderson, John, 1997. "The model: Integrating the science and economics of global warming," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 77-101, March.
    11. Stephen P. A. Brown & Hillard G. Huntington, 2003. "Terms of trade and OECD policies to mitigate global climate change," Economic and Financial Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
    12. Berck, Peter & Levy, Amnon & Chowdhury, Khorshed, 2012. "An analysis of the world's environment and population dynamics with varying carrying capacity, concerns and skepticism," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 103-112.
    13. Robert Vermeulen & Edo Schets & Melanie Lohuis & Barbara Kölbl & David-Jan Jansen & Willem Heeringa, 2019. "The Heat is on: a framework for measuring financial stress under disruptive energy transition scenarios," DNB Working Papers 625, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    14. Chan, Ying Tung, 2020. "Carbon policies and productivity uncertainty: An intertemporal analysis," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 158(C).
    15. Nathalie Spittler & Ganna Gladkykh & Arnaud Diemer & Brynhildur Davidsdottir, 2019. "Understanding the Current Energy Paradigm and Energy System Models for More Sustainable Energy System Development," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(8), pages 1-22, April.
    16. Brown, Stephen P.A. & Huntington, Hillard G., 2015. "Evaluating U.S. oil security and import reliance," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 9-22.
    17. Rye, Craig D. & Jackson, Tim, 2018. "A review of EROEI-dynamics energy-transition models," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 122(C), pages 260-272.
    18. Gu, Gaoxiang & Wang, Zheng, 2018. "Research on global carbon abatement driven by R&D investment in the context of INDCs," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 148(C), pages 662-675.

    More about this item


    Air pollution; conservation; environment; climate;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F01 - International Economics - - General - - - Global Outlook
    • Q25 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Water
    • Q28 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Government Policy


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