IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Asymmetric Relation Between Margin Requirements and Stock Market Volatility Across Bull and Bear Markets


  • Hardouvelis, Gikas A
  • Pericli, Andreas
  • Theodossiou, Panayiotis


EGARCH-M models based on a daily, weekly, and monthly S&P–500 returns over the period October 1934–September 1994 reveal that higher margins have a much stronger negative relation to subsequent volatility in bull markets than in bear markets. Higher margins are also negatively related to subsequent conditional stock returns, apparently because they reduce systemic risk. These empirical regularities are consistent with the pyramiding-depyramiding framework of stock prices that US Congress had in mind when it instituted margin regulation in 1934, and suggest that a prudential rule for setting margins over time would be to raise them during periods of unwarranted price increases and to lower them immediately after large declines in stock prices.

Suggested Citation

  • Hardouvelis, Gikas A & Pericli, Andreas & Theodossiou, Panayiotis, 1997. "The Asymmetric Relation Between Margin Requirements and Stock Market Volatility Across Bull and Bear Markets," CEPR Discussion Papers 1746, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:1746

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: CEPR Discussion Papers are free to download for our researchers, subscribers and members. If you fall into one of these categories but have trouble downloading our papers, please contact us at

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Georgy Chabakauri, 2012. "Asset Pricing with Heterogeneous Investors and Portfolio Constraints," FMG Discussion Papers dp707, Financial Markets Group.
    2. Claudio Borio & Craig Furfine & Philip Lowe, 2001. "Procyclicality of the financial system and financial stability: issues and policy options," BIS Papers chapters,in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Marrying the macro- and micro-prudential dimensions of financial stability, volume 1, pages 1-57 Bank for International Settlements.

    More about this item


    asymmetry; Credit; EGARCH model; Federal Reserve; Margin Requirements; Stock Prices; Volatility;

    JEL classification:

    • G18 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Government Policy and Regulation


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:1746. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.