Price Discrimination with Costly Consumer Arbitrage
Consumer arbitrage affects discriminatory pricing across markets in several ways. If all consumers face the same arbitrage costs, a monopolist's profit increases with arbitrage costs, and overall welfare declines with them (if output does not rise). If arbitrage costs differ across consumers, a monopolist may sell in a second market even if there is no local demand - it can use the second market to discriminate across consumers in the first market on the basis of their costs. When there is also local demand in the second market, welfare may be increasing in arbitrage costs, even if output falls.
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- Jean Tirole, 1988. "The Theory of Industrial Organization," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262200716, December.
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