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(English) (Italiano) Le politiche migratorie dei paesi mediterranei dell’Unione Europea nell’ultimo quindicennio: dimensione comunitaria e peculiarità nazionali

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  • Antonella Guarneri
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    (English) Within the European Union important steps towards convergence have been nowadays taking place as regards two different dimensions of migratory policies: immigration policies (entry and stay, asylum and border controls) and immigrant policies (integration process). In this context the Mediterranean countries of the European Union represent a particular case. According to the migration dynamics since the second half of the 1970s, Italy, Greece, Portugal and Spain progressively changed their role within the European migration system. From emigration countries they became countries of destination of the migration flows. The similarity of their migratory patterns and politics suggests the presence of a specific “Mediterranean immigration model”. The aim of the research was to highlight differences and similarities in immigration legislation in these countries. France was also included to make a comparison with a traditional country of destination of migration flows. Moreover, the impact of some migratory policies has been evaluated. The relevance of regularization procedures and their widespread use in the EU Mediterranean countries suggest studying their main recent trends and their links with the legislation in force. Within the analysis of the immigrant policy measures the attention was focused on electoral rights for foreign nationals in this area. (Italiano) Importanti passi avanti sono stati oggi compiuti, a livello europeo, verso una convergenza sulle politiche per l’immigrazione (ingresso e soggiorno, asilo e controlli alle frontiere) e sulle politiche per gli immigrati (relative al processo d’integrazione). In questo contesto i paesi mediterranei dell’UE costituiscono una realtà di estremo interesse. Infatti, Italia, Grecia, Portogallo e Spagna, a partire dagli anni Settanta, hanno progressivamente invertito il loro ruolo nel sistema migratorio europeo: da paesi d’emigrazione sono divenuti paesi d’immigrazione. Le similitudini tra i percorsi e le politiche migratorie da questi sperimentate ha, quindi, portato alla definizione di un “modello mediterraneo dell’immigrazione”. Lo scopo di questo lavoro è stato quello di evidenziare differenze e analogie tra le legislazioni nazionali di questi paesi tra cui è stata inserita anche la Francia per via del suo particolare ruolo sì di paese mediterraneo ma anche di meta tradizionale di flussi migratori. Inoltre, è stato avanzato qualche tentativo di valutazione delle politiche migratorie: da una parte, si è fatto riferimento alle procedure di regolarizzazione ed al largo uso che ne è stato fatto tra i paesi qui considerati;mentre sul versante delle politiche per gli immigrati, è stato affrontato il tema del diritto di voto per la popolazione straniera.

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    Paper provided by National Research Council, Institute for Research on Population and Social Policies in its series IRPPS Working Papers with number 5:2005.

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    Date of creation: 2005
    Handle: RePEc:cnz:wpaper:5:2005
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