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Neoplatonismo y pluralismo filosófico medieval: un enfoque politológico

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  • Carlos Escudé

Abstract

ENGLISH: This working paper documents research on inter-denominational philosophical convergences and intra-denominational philosophical divergences among the three main monotheistic faiths during the Middle Ages (600-1500), in the Mediterranean World and beyond. It surveys Jewish, Christian and Islamic answers to the so-called first questions: “what sort of being is God”, “how was Creation unleashed”, and “how and when will the End-times come to be”, focusing on monotheistic ideas originated on the Neoplatonic paganism of Late Antiquity. The findings suggest that the different answers to these questions were not determined by differences in the religious creeds of the various philosophers. Regarding these very major religious issues, some Jewish (or Christian, or Islamic) philosophers agreed with some of their colleagues from other Abrahamic faiths, while disagreeing with some philosophers of their own creed. This crisscrossing among creeds of theological, cosmogonical and eschatological ideas was present in a vast region of the world, all the way from Iberia to Persia and from Ireland to Egypt, taking place despite the frequent religious fundamentalism of the political units involved. This region is approximately equivalent to the by then long-lost Greco-Roman civilization, and indeed, the findings suggest that this Middle Age philosophical pluralism was a very late manifestation of the said civilizational unit, on the throes of final extinction. SPANISH: Este trabajo documenta una investigación sobre convergencias filosóficas inter-religiosas y divergencias filosóficas intra-religiosas entre los tres credos monoteístas principales, durante el Medioevo (600-1500), en el Mundo Mediterráneo y su periferia nórdica. Releva respuestas judías, cristianas e islámicas a las llamadas primeras preguntas: “qué clase de ser es Dios”, “cómo se desencadenó la Creación”, y “cómo y cuándo se producirá el Fin de los Tiempos”, concentrándose en ideas monoteístas originadas en el paganismo neoplatónico de la Antigüedad Tardía. Los hallazgos sugieren que las diversas respuestas a estas preguntas no estuvieron determinadas por diferencias en los credos religiosos. Respecto de estas cuestiones religiosas fundamentales, algunos pensadores judíos (como también cristianos y musulmanes) coincidieron con sus colegas de otros credos abrahámicos, a la vez que discreparon de pensadores de su propio credo religioso. Este entrecruzamiento, entre credos, de ideas teológicas, cosmogónicas y escatológicas, se registró en una vasta región del mundo, desde Iberia hasta Persia y desde Irlanda hasta Egipto, produciéndose a pesar del frecuente fundamentalismo religioso de los Estados. Se trata de una región aproximadamente equivalente a la por entonces ya fenecida civilización greco-romana. Los hallazgos sugieren que este pluralismo filosófico medieval fue una manifestación muy tardía de esa gran unidad civilizatoria.

Suggested Citation

  • Carlos Escudé, 2011. "Neoplatonismo y pluralismo filosófico medieval: un enfoque politológico," CEMA Working Papers: Serie Documentos de Trabajo. 475, Universidad del CEMA.
  • Handle: RePEc:cem:doctra:475
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