IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Impact of Gender, Occupation, and Presence of Children on Telecommuting Motivations and Constraints


  • Mokhtarian, Patricia L.
  • Bagley, Michael N.
  • Salomon, Ilan


Accurate forecasts of the adoption and impacts of telecommuting depend on an understanding of what motivates individuals to adopt telecommuting and what constraints prevent them from doing so, since these motivations and constraints offer insight into who is likely to telecommute under what circumstances. Telecommuting motivations and constraints are likely to differ by various segments of society. In this study, we analyze differences in these variables due to gender, occupation, and presence of children for 583 employees of the City of San Diego. Numerous differences are identified, which can be used to inform policies (public or organizational) intended to support telecommuting. Most broadly, women on average rated the advantages of telecommuting more highly than men – both overall and within each occupation group. Women were more likely than men to have family, personal benefits, and stress reduction as potential motivations for telecommuting, and more likely to possess the constraints of supervisor unwillingness, risk aversion, and concern about lack of visibility to management. Clerical workers were more likely than managers or professionals to see the family, personal, and office stress-reduction benefits of telecommuting as important, whereas managers and professionals were more likely to cite getting more work done as the most important advantage of telecommuting. Constraints present more strongly for clerical workers than for other occupations included misunderstanding, supervisor unwillingness, job unsuitability, risk aversion, and (together with professional workers) perceived reduced social interaction. Constraints operating more strongly for professional workers included fear of household distractions, reduced social and (together with managers) professional interaction, the need for discipline, and lack of visibility to management. Key constraints present for managers included reduced professional interaction and household distractions. Lack of awareness, cost, and lack of technology or other resources did not differ significantly by gender or occupation. Respondents with children rated the stress reduction and family benefits of telecommuting more highly than did those with no children at home. Those with children were more likely than those without children to be concerned about the lack of visibility to management, and (especially managers) were more likely to cite household distractions as a constraint.

Suggested Citation

  • Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Bagley, Michael N. & Salomon, Ilan, 1998. "The Impact of Gender, Occupation, and Presence of Children on Telecommuting Motivations and Constraints," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt6792b1k7, University of California Transportation Center.
  • Handle: RePEc:cdl:uctcwp:qt6792b1k7

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:;origin=repeccitec
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Salomon, Ilan, 1997. "Modeling the desire to telecommute: The importance of attitudinal factors in behavioral models," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 35-50, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Pawlak, Jacek & Polak, John W. & Sivakumar, Aruna, 2015. "Towards a microeconomic framework for modelling the joint choice of activity–travel behaviour and ICT use," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 92-112.
    2. Fu, Miao & Andrew Kelly, J. & Peter Clinch, J. & King, Fearghal, 2012. "Environmental policy implications of working from home: Modelling the impacts of land-use, infrastructure and socio-demographics," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 416-423.
    3. Nursitihazlin Ahmad Termida & Yusak O. Susilo & Joel P. Franklin, 2016. "Examining the effects of out-of-home and in-home constraints on leisure activity participation in different seasons of the year," Transportation, Springer, vol. 43(6), pages 997-1021, November.
    4. Dissanayake, Dilum & Morikawa, Takayuki, 2008. "Impact assessment of satellite centre-based telecommuting on travel and air quality in developing countries by exploring the link between travel behaviour and urban form," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 42(6), pages 883-894, July.
    5. O'Keefe, Paul & Caulfield, Brian & Brazil, William & White, Peter, 2016. "The impacts of telecommuting in Dublin," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 13-20.
    6. Lachapelle, Ugo & Noland, Robert B., 2012. "Does the commute mode affect the frequency of walking behavior? The public transit link," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 21(C), pages 26-36.
    7. Sumita Raghuram & Dong Fang, 2014. "Telecommuting and the role of supervisory power in China," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 31(2), pages 523-547, June.
    8. Nijland, Linda & Dijst, Martin, 2015. "Commuting-related fringe benefits in the Netherlands: Interrelationships and company, employee and location characteristics," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 358-371.

    More about this item


    Social and Behavioral Sciences;


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cdl:uctcwp:qt6792b1k7. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lisa Schiff). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.