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Batteries for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs): Goals and the State of Technology circa 2008

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  • Axsen, Jonn
  • Burke, Andy
  • Kurani, Kenneth S

Abstract

This report discusses the development of advanced batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications. We discuss the basic design concepts of PHEVs, compare three sets of influential technical goals, and explain the inherent trade-offs in PHEV battery design. We then discuss the current state of several battery chemistries, including nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) and lithium-ion (Li-Ion), comparing their abilities to meet PHEV goals, and potential trajectories for further improvement. Four important conclusions are highlighted. First, PHEV battery “goals†vary according to differing assumptions of PHEV design, performance, use patterns and consumer demand. Second, battery development is constrained by inherent tradeoffs among five main battery attributes: power, energy, longevity, safety and cost. Third, Li-Ion battery designs are better suited to meet the demands of more aggressive PHEV goals than the NiMH batteries currently used for HEVs. Fourth, the flexible nature of Li-Ion technology, as well as concerns over safety, has prompted several alternate paths of continued technological development. Due to the differences among these development paths, the attributes of one type of Li-Ion battery cannot necessarily be generalized to other types. This paper is not intended to be a definitive analysis of technologies; instead, it is more of a primer for battery non-experts, providing the perspective and tools to help understand and critically review research on PHEV batteries.

Suggested Citation

  • Axsen, Jonn & Burke, Andy & Kurani, Kenneth S, 2008. "Batteries for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs): Goals and the State of Technology circa 2008," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt1bp83874, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
  • Handle: RePEc:cdl:itsdav:qt1bp83874
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    Cited by:

    1. Burke, Andrew, 2009. "Performance, Charging, and Second-use Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt2xf263qp, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    2. Momber, Ilan & Dallinger, David & Beer, Sebastian & Gomez, Tomás & Wietschel, Martin, 2011. "Optimizing plug-in electric vehicle charging in interaction with a small office building," Working Papers "Sustainability and Innovation" S9/2011, Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI).
    3. Axsen, Jonn & Burke, Andy & Kurani, Kenneth S, 2010. "Are Batteries Ready for Plug-in Hybrid Buyers?," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt7vh184rw, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    4. Burke, Andrew & Miller, Marshall, 2009. "Performance Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Various Chemistries for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt3mc7g3vt, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    5. Axsen, Jonn & Kurani, Kenneth S. & Burke, Andrew, 2010. "Are batteries ready for plug-in hybrid buyers?," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 173-182, May.
    6. repec:gam:jeners:v:10:y:2017:i:12:p:2058-:d:121766 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Noshin Omar & Mohamed Daowd & Omar Hegazy & Grietus Mulder & Jean-Marc Timmermans & Thierry Coosemans & Peter Van den Bossche & Joeri Van Mierlo, 2012. "Standardization Work for BEV and HEV Applications: Critical Appraisal of Recent Traction Battery Documents," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 5(1), pages 1-19, January.
    8. Azadfar, Elham & Sreeram, Victor & Harries, David, 2015. "The investigation of the major factors influencing plug-in electric vehicle driving patterns and charging behaviour," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 1065-1076.
    9. Shiau, Ching-Shin Norman & Samaras, Constantine & Hauffe, Richard & Michalek, Jeremy J., 2009. "Impact of battery weight and charging patterns on the economic and environmental benefits of plug-in hybrid vehicles," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(7), pages 2653-2663, July.
    10. Israel García & Luis Javier Miguel, 2012. "Is the Electric Vehicle an Attractive Option for Customers?," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 5(1), pages 1-21, January.
    11. Burke, Andy & Miller, Marshall, 2009. "Electrochemical Capacitors as Energy Storage in Hybrid-Electric Vehicles: Present Status and Future Prospects," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt7r75s6mx, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.

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    Keywords

    UCD-ITS-RR-08-14; Engineering;

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