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Effet de la concurrence sur l'efficience bancaire en Afrique : Le cas de l'UEMOA

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  • Florian LEON

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Abstract

Cet article étudie dans quelle mesure la concurrence entre les banques peut affecter leur efficience au sein de l'UEMOA. Théoriquement, l'effet net de la concurrence bancaire sur l'efficience est indéterminée, en particulier dans le cas des pays en développement. D'une part, la concurrence oblige les banques à rationaliser leurs méthodes et à améliorer l'allocation des ressources. D'autre part, le pouvoir de marché permet d'améliorer l'information disponible et d'atténuer les problèmes de sélection adverse et d'aléa moral. Cette ambivalence est exacerbée dans le cadre de systèmes financiers opaques tels que ceux des pays d'Afrique Sub-Saharienne. Cet article apporte une réponse empirique à cette indétermination théorique en utilisant les données bancaires de 7 pays de l'UEMOA sur la période 2002-2007. Le principal résultat est l'effet négatif et robuste de la concurrence sur l'efficience-coût des banques alors que son effet sur l'efficience-profit est nul.

Suggested Citation

  • Florian LEON, 2012. "Effet de la concurrence sur l'efficience bancaire en Afrique : Le cas de l'UEMOA," Working Papers 201202, CERDI.
  • Handle: RePEc:cdi:wpaper:1321
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    Keywords

    Concurrence; Pouvoir de marche; Efficience; Indice de Lerner; Banque;

    JEL classification:

    • O55 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Africa
    • L22 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Firm Organization and Market Structure
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

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