‘We Have Always Lived Here’: Indigenous Movements, Citizenship and Poverty in Argentina
This paper explores the new politics of difference in Argentina since the 1994 constitutional reform, and its ramifications for citizenship and indigenous wellbeing. Through a comparison of land struggles among the Mbya Guaraní in Misiones and the Diaguita Calchaquí in Tucumán it is shown that new collective rights only gained traction once indigenous social movements employed the language of ‘differentiated rights’ and pushed for the implementation of multicultural legislation. At the same time, local indigenous communities continue to face adverse socioeconomic incorporation, and the new legal frameworks focus on land rights, thereby foreclosing the establishment of indigenous control over territory. The current politics of recognition in Argentina thus plays a crucial role in deepening cultural and political citizenship, while its impacts remain limited for addressing broader issues of social justice.
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