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Barriers to Entry and Development

One of the most challenging questions in economics is why some countries are so much richer than others. In this paper, we assess the role of cross-country differences in barriers to entry. This is motivated by the recent evidence about both their prevalence in the third world and their harmful economic consequences. We construct a growth model with capital in which barriers to entry give monopoly power to insider groups and allow them to extract rents. Our first contribution is to solve the dynamic rent-seeking problem of the insider groups and show that larger barriers reduce TFP, the capital-output ratio, and per-capita GDP and increase the relative price of capital. In other words, our model is consistent with the evidence that poorer countries have lower TFPs and capital-output ratios and higher relative prices of capital. Our second contribution is to take our model to the data and assess quantitatively the aggregate implications of barriers to entry. Our most important finding is that barriers to entry have non-linear effects: while small to medium-sized barriers are harmful, large barriers can have disastrous quantitative effects.

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Paper provided by Department of Economics, W. P. Carey School of Business, Arizona State University in its series Working Papers with number 2167726.

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Handle: RePEc:asu:wpaper:2167726
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  1. Ellen R. McGrattan & James A. Schmitz, 1998. "Explaining cross-country income differences," Staff Report 250, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  2. Thomas J. Holmes & James A. Schmitz, 1995. "Resistance to new technology and trade between areas," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Win, pages 2-17.
  3. Chang-Tai Hsieh & Peter J. Klenow, 2003. "Relative Prices and Relative Prosperity," NBER Working Papers 9701, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Krueger, Alan B & Summers, Lawrence H, 1988. "Efficiency Wages and the Inter-industry Wage Structure," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(2), pages 259-93, March.
  5. Acemoglu, Daron & Zilibotti, Fabrizio, 1998. "Productivity Differences," Seminar Papers 660, Stockholm University, Institute for International Economic Studies.
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  9. Hendricks, Lutz, . "Equipment Investment and Growth In Developing Countries," Working Papers 97/5, Arizona State University, Department of Economics.
  10. Harrigan, James, 1999. "Estimation of cross-country differences in industry production functions," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 267-293, April.
  11. Peter Klenow & Andrés Rodríguez-Clare, 1997. "The Neoclassical Revival in Growth Economics: Has It Gone Too Far?," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1997, Volume 12, pages 73-114 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. V. V. Chari & Patrick J. Kehoe & Ellen R. McGrattan, 1997. "The poverty of nations: a quantitative exploration," Staff Report 204, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  13. repec:tpr:qjecon:v:107:y:1992:i:2:p:407-37 is not listed on IDEAS
  14. Daniel Traca, 2001. "Quantitative restrictions, market power and productivity growth," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/9235, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  15. Clark, Gregory, 1987. "Why Isn't the Whole World Developed? Lessons from the Cotton Mills," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 47(01), pages 141-173, March.
  16. Jose E. Galdon Sanchez & James A. Schmitz, 2003. "Competitive pressure and labor productivity: world iron ore markets in the 1980s," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Spr, pages 9-23.
  17. Douglas Gollin, 2001. "Getting Income Shares Right," Department of Economics Working Papers 2001-11, Department of Economics, Williams College.
  18. Edward C. Prescott, 1997. "Needed: a theory of total factor productivity," Staff Report 242, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  19. Herrendorf, Berthold & Teixeira, Arilton, 2002. "How Trade Policy Affects Technology Adoption and Productivity," CEPR Discussion Papers 3486, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  20. Jones, Charles I., 1994. "Economic growth and the relative price of capital," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 359-382, December.
  21. Bridgman, Benjamin R. & Livshits, Igor D. & MacGee, James C., 2007. "Vested interests and technology adoption," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(3), pages 649-666, April.
  22. Cozzi Guido & Palacios Luis-Felipe, 2003. "Parente and Prescott's Theory May Work in Practice But Does Not Work in Theory," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 3(1), pages 1-7, August.
  23. Thomas J. Holmes & James A. Schmitz, 1994. "Resistance to technology and trade between areas," Staff Report 184, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  24. Echevarria, Cristina, 1997. "Changes in Sectoral Composition Associated with Economic Growth," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 38(2), pages 431-52, May.
  25. Restuccia, Diego & Urrutia, Carlos, 2001. "Relative prices and investment rates," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 93-121, February.
  26. Robert E. Hall & Charles I. Jones, 1999. "Why Do Some Countries Produce So Much More Output per Worker than Others?," NBER Working Papers 6564, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  27. Narayana R. Kocherlakota, 2001. "Building blocks for barriers to riches," Staff Report 288, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  28. N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1990. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," NBER Working Papers 3541, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  29. Stephen L. Parente & Edward C. Prescott, 1993. "Changes in the wealth of nations," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Spr, pages 3-16.
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