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Estruturas De Mercado De Fatores E Governança Na Cadeia Produtiva Do Leite: Um Estudo De Caso Do Município De Ajuricaba-Rs

  • Breitenbach, Raquel
  • Souza, Renato Santos De
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    A estrutura de mercado de fatores que predominou por muitos anos na cadeia produtiva do leite, nas diferentes regiões do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, foi a de monopsônio, em que apesar de existirem várias empresas processadoras de leite, estas se localizavam de maneira que o agricultor não tinha mais do que uma opção de venda do seu produto. Nos últimos anos, em especial a partir de 2004, tem-se observado um significativo aumento no número de empresas processadoras de laticínio no Norte do estado do RS, concentrando-se em regiões que possuem fortes bacias leiteiras. Esse fato provoca o aumento da concorrência entre estas empresas na aquisição da matéria-prima principal, que é o leite in natura. Identificou-se uma região no município de Ajuricaba – RS, onde, historicamente, apenas uma empresa era responsável pela compra da matéria-prima e, a partir de 2004, várias empresas disputam o leite produzido no local. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi investigar, nesta região, como a concorrência na aquisição da matéria-prima interferiu nas transações entre empresa processadora/agricultor e na governança da cadeia produtiva do leite. Esse estudo se enquadra numa pesquisa qualitativa e utilizou o método do Estudo de Caso. Como instrumentos de pesquisa foram utilizados a revisão de materiais bibliográficos, a observação e a entrevista. A concorrência no local gerou modificações no comportamento dos agentes, aumentaram os custos de transação, caracterizados pela maior freqüência nas transações, pelo aumento da incerteza e do oportunismo. Já a estrutura de governança adotada no ambiente de concorrência, comparada à adotada no ambiente de monopsônio, continuou híbrida, mas ficou mais próxima de uma governança via mercado. Isto porque o preço tornou-se o único fator de decisão do fornecedor em vender sua produção para um ou para outro comprador. Combinado a isso, surgiu a necessidade de renegociação do produto mensalmente, com a elaboração de contratos informais de curto prazo.----------------------------------------------Concerning the milk production chain, the structure of monopsony in the market of factors has its domain for many years in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. It has been verified in the last years especially from 2004 is a significant increase in the amount of the milk processing companies in the North of the State of RS, concentrating in regions which has strong milk basins. This fact provokes the increase of the concurrence between these companies in relation of the acquisition of its main raw material, the in-natura milk. It was identified a region in the town of Ajuricaba-RS, where historically just one company was responsible for the purchase of the raw material and, since 2004, several companies dispute for the milk produced in that location. The objective of the present research was to investigate, in this region, how the concurrence in the acquisition of the raw material interfered in the transactions between processing company and farmer and in its domain in the milk productive chain. Based on the characteristics and in the nature of the investigation, this study is embedded in a research of a qualitative sort and utilizes the Study of Case method. The review of the literature (to compose the theoretical corpus of the study), the observation and the interview (to accomplish the field work) was used as research devices. The concurrence in that location brought changes in the people involved. These changes raised the costs of transaction, characterized by a higher frequency in the transactions, caused by the increase of the uncertainty, of the opportunism and consequently making a more limited rationale. Yet the structure of domain adopted in the concurrence ambient, compared to the one adopted in the monopsony ambient, remain it hybrid, but became closer to a via market management. It is asserted second the observation that the price has became the single factor of decision by the dealer to sell its production to one or another purchaser. Combined to that, a need for a monthly renegotiation of the product occurred, with the elaboration of informal short-term contracts.

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    File URL: http://purl.umn.edu/109455
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    Paper provided by Sociedade Brasileira de Economia, Administracao e Sociologia Rural (SOBER) in its series 46th Congress, July 20-23, 2008, Rio Branco, Acre, Brasil with number 109455.

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    Date of creation: Jul 2008
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    Handle: RePEc:ags:sbrfsr:109455
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.sober.org.br/
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