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La Consolidación Del Hambre Y Del Derecho A La Alimentación En Las Agendas Políticas De América Latina

  • Viveros, Jose Luis
  • Almeida Filho, Niemeyer
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    América Latina y el Caribe es la única región en desarrollo que puede acabar con el hambre en nuestra generación. Tiene 52,4 millones de personas subnutridas (10% de población) y 9 millones de niños con desnutrición crónica, pero también es la principal productora mundial de alimentos y tiene recursos financieros, naturales, humanos e institucionales para hacer del hambre un recuerdo del pasado. Es básicamente un problema de desigualdad en el acceso a los recursos, y tiene serias implicaciones económicas (retraso en crecimiento y déficit de competitividad) y políticas (desencanto con la democracia, auge del populismo, y violación de los derechos). En este trabajo se presentan los notables avances de la lucha contra el hambre y el derecho a la alimentación en la región, destacando el posicionamiento prioritario del hambre en las agendas políticas de la región, y el desarrollo de los marcos legales e institucionales necesarios para la realización progresiva del derecho a la alimentación, tanto desde la dimensión de estar libre de hambre como de tener acceso a una alimentación adecuada en cantidad y calidad. En la región hay actualmente cuatro leyes de seguridad alimentaria y nueve proyectos de ley en debate, lo cual posiciona a la región a la vanguardia de este derecho. Como estudio de caso, se presentan los avances y desafíos que tiene Guatemala, el país con mayor proporción de niños desnutridos de la región. El desafío venidero consistirá en acompañar este desarrollo institucional con una inversión social adecuada que sea perdurable en el tiempo y se consolide como una verdadera política de Estado en todos los países, para conseguir una América sin Hambre antes del 2025.----------------------------------------------Latin America and the Caribbean is the only developing region that can end hunger in our generation. It has 52.4 million undernourished people (10% of population) and 9 million stunted children. However, it is also the main world food producer and exporter and it has financial, natural, human and institutional resources to make hunger a memory of the past. It is basically a problem of inequality in the access to resources with serious economic implications (less economic growth and deficit of competitiveness) and political ones (detachment with democracy, rise of populism, and human rights violation). In this work, the authors present the remarkable advances of the fight against hunger in the region and the implementation of the right to food, emphasizing the high position reached by hunger in the political agendas, and the development of the legal and institutional framework necessary for the progressive accomplishment of the right to adequate food and the immediate right to be free from hunger. In the region there are at present four food security laws and nine law drafts to be discussed in national parliaments, which positions the region at the forefront of this human right worldwide. As a case study, the authors develop the advances and challenges of right to food and food security in Guatemala, being the country with the greatest proportion of stunted children in the region. The challenge will consist of accompanying this institutional progress with adequate social investment that is able to last more than one presidential term, that is well focused and that consolidates a true State policy in all the countries, to finally achieve an America without Hunger before 2025.

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    Paper provided by Sociedade Brasileira de Economia, Administracao e Sociologia Rural (SOBER) in its series 46th Congress, July 20-23, 2008, Rio Branco, Acre, Brasil with number 109439.

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    Date of creation: Jul 2008
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    Handle: RePEc:ags:sbrfsr:109439
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