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Biologische, Biotechnologische En Gangbare Landbouw: Een Vergelijkende Economische Studie

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  • Demont, Matty
  • Tollens, Eric

Abstract

Crop protection is a part of the agricultural production system. In Europe during the past century, this system has been subject to innovation, stemming from the second agricultural revolution of the Modern Time. Today we are on the crossroad of three alternative agricultural systems. Conventional agriculture is the product of the second agricultural revolution. So far, biotechnological agriculture seems to continue these trends. Organic agriculture on the other hand is a reaction on the paradigm of the second agricultural revolution, especially regarding the negative environmental externalities engendered by this revolution. Today, conventional agriculture is under pressure. Two alternatives have emerged: organic and biotechnological agriculture. Which one is the most economical solution? To answer this question, we analyze these agricultural innovations in a historical perspective, emphasizing the socio-economic evolution process of the production systems during the last century and some of the recent institutional changes. Then we compare short-term micro-economic profitability of conventional versus biotechnological agriculture and conventional versus organic agriculture. To analyze biotechnological agriculture, we refer to two important innovations which have recently been introduced in the Unites States, i.e. glyphosate-resistant soybeans and Bt corn. For the latter, we develop a theoretical micro-economic production model, enabling to represent the effects of Bt corn on total crop protection costs. Finally, we enlarge the scope and compare the macro-economic effects among the three alternatives. The long-term aspects as well as the non-market effects or externalities are taken into account. We conclude the analysis and give some future perspectives. Door middel van een vergelijkende analyse worden de micro- en macro-economische kosten en baten en externaliteiten voor de Europese Unie van drie alternatieve landbouwproductie-systemen afgewogen: gangbare, biotechnologische en biologische. De biotechnologische innovaties blijken valabele alternatieven te bieden voor de gangbare landbouw zowel op micro- als op maco-economische schall, ondanks het feit dat een deel van de voordelen geabsorbeerd wordt door de biotechnologische industrie. De biologische landbouw kenmerkt zich, ondanks haar lagere fysische productiviteit, door een rentabiliteit die vergelijkbaar is met de conventionele landbouw. Ook op macro-economisch vlak heeft dit landbouwsysteem heel wat voordelen te bieden. De toekomst van deze drie landbouwsystemen zal afhangen van hun onderlinge rentabiliteitsverhoudingen, alsook van politieke en sociale factoren, zoals bijvoorbeeld de consumentenhouding ten opzichte van nieuwe technologieen.

Suggested Citation

  • Demont, Matty & Tollens, Eric, 2000. "Biologische, Biotechnologische En Gangbare Landbouw: Een Vergelijkende Economische Studie," Working Papers 31839, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:kucawp:31839
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    File URL: http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/31839/files/wp000054.pdf
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Demont, Matty & Jouve, Philippe & Stessens, Johan & Tollens, Eric, 2000. "The Evolution Of Farming Systems In Northern Cote D'Ivoire: Boserup Versus Malthus And Competition Versus Complementarity," 2000 Annual meeting, July 30-August 2, Tampa, FL 21865, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    2. Tollens, Eric, 2003. "Poverty And Livelihood Entitlement, How It Relates To Agriculture," Working Papers 31856, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics.
    3. Tollens, Eric, 2002. "Market Information Systems In Liberalized African Export Commodity Markets: The Case Of Cocoa And Coffee In Cote D'Ivoire, Nigeria And Cameroon," Working Papers 31860, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics.
    4. Demont, Matty & Tollens, Eric, 2001. "Welfare Effects Of Transgenic Sugarbeets In The European Union: A Theoretical Ex-Ante Framework," Working Papers 31852, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics.
    5. Tollens, Eric, 2002. "Food Security In Kinshasa, Coping With Adversity," Working Papers 31848, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics.
    6. Tollens, Eric, 2003. "Current Situation Of Food Security In The D.R. Congo: Diagnostic And Perspectives," Working Papers 31853, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics.
    7. Tollens, Eric & Demont, Matty & Swennen, Rony, 2003. "Agrobiotechnology In Developing Countries: North-South Partnerships Are A Key," Working Papers 31837, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics.
    8. Demont, Matty & Tollens, Eric, 2001. "Uncertainties Of Estimating The Welfare Effects Of Agricultural Biotechnology In The European Union," Working Papers 31828, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics.
    9. Tollens, Eric, 2002. "The Challenges Of Poverty Reduction With Particular Reference To Rural Poverty And Agriculture In Sub-Saharan Africa," Working Papers 31850, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics.

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