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Incentive for Aggression in American Football

In: Violence and Aggression in Sporting Contests


  • Janice A. Hauge

    (University of North Texas)


This chapter focuses on the United States’ National Football League (NFL) and the continuing attempt to control the level of violence inherent in the game. The study uses data from 1995 to 2009 to analyze the effect of violence and aggression on the success of a team and on fan attendance. Results show that penalties are negatively associated with wins from 1995 through 2005; after 2005, this relationship is statistically insignificant, although trends apparent in the data make it essential to watch the progression of this relationship. In addition, data suggest a correlation between attendance and more egregious rule infractions over the past five seasons; however, such correlation is not found to be statistically significant.

Suggested Citation

  • Janice A. Hauge, 2011. "Incentive for Aggression in American Football," Sports Economics, Management, and Policy, in: R. Todd Jewell (ed.), Violence and Aggression in Sporting Contests, edition 1, chapter 0, pages 29-46, Springer.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:semchp:978-1-4419-6630-8_3
    DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-6630-8_3

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