IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this book chapter

Border Inspection and Trade Diversion: Risk Reduction vs. Risk Substitution

In: Health and Animal Agriculture in Developing Countries


  • Qiong Wang

    (Arizona State University)

  • Eli P. Fenichel

    (Arizona State University)

  • Charles A. Perrings

    (Arizona State University)


International trade increasingly brings previously separated geographical regions into contact with one another and increases the frequency of those contacts. These trends bring many benefits to the trading partners involved, but increasing international trade also facilitates the spread of pathogens and increases disease risks. The rapid growth of trade, transport, and travel across national borders has increased the frequency of introduction, establishment, and spread of invasive infectious pathogens (Jones et al. 2008). The development of new trade pathways and the growth in the number and volume of commodities traded increase the likelihood that novel infectious pathogens are introduced to importing or stop-over countries. The growth in trade volumes has increased the risk that introduced pathogens establish and spread, because it has increased the frequency with which infectious pathogens are introduced (Cassey et al. 2004; Dalmazzone 2000; Semmens et al. 2004). Other factors such as the bioclimatic similarities between trading partners, the vulnerability of ecosystems in the importing countries, and risk management policies adopted by both importing and exporting countries also influence the risks of invasive infectious pathogens (Wiens and Graham 2005).

Suggested Citation

  • Qiong Wang & Eli P. Fenichel & Charles A. Perrings, 2012. "Border Inspection and Trade Diversion: Risk Reduction vs. Risk Substitution," Natural Resource Management and Policy, in: David Zilberman & Joachim Otte & David Roland-Holst & Dirk Pfeiffer (ed.), Health and Animal Agriculture in Developing Countries, edition 1, chapter 0, pages 119-134, Springer.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:nrmchp:978-1-4419-7077-0_7
    DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-7077-0_7

    Download full text from publisher

    To our knowledge, this item is not available for download. To find whether it is available, there are three options:
    1. Check below whether another version of this item is available online.
    2. Check on the provider's web page whether it is in fact available.
    3. Perform a search for a similarly titled item that would be available.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:nrmchp:978-1-4419-7077-0_7. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no bibliographic references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sonal Shukla or Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.