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Viet Nam Country Report


  • Nguyen Minh Bao


Viet Nam has a total land area of about 331,111 square kilometres and lies in the centre of South East Asia. In 2009, Viet Nam had a population of 86 million and GDP of US$58.8 billion in 2000 US$ terms. The industry sector contributes the most to Viet Nam’s GDP (40.2 percent), followed by the commercial sector (38.9 percent) and agriculture (20.9 percent). GDP per capita was 684 US$ per person in 2009. Viet Nam possesses considerable indigenous energy resources. It has 3,390 million tonnes of proven recoverable reserves of coal, 460 million cubic metres of crude oil reserves and 610 billion cubic metres of gas reserves. Viet Nam’s total primary energy supply (TPES) was 39.1 Mtoe in 2009. Oil represented the largest share of Viet Nam’s TPES at 39.8 percent; coal was second at 29.2 percent, followed by natural gas (23.0 percent), hydro (6.1 percent) and others (1.9 percent). Viet Nam is a net exporter of crude oil and coal but is an importer of petroleum products because of capacity limitations at the Dung Quat oil refinery (6.5 million tonnes a year) that could meet around 30 percent of domestic demand. Coal is mainly used in the industry sector with consumption of 7.3 Mtoe in 2009, while gas is largely used for electricity generation. Viet Nam had 16.3GW of installed generating capacity and generated 79.6 TWh of electricity in 2009. Most of Viet Nam’s electricity generation comes from thermal sources (coal, natural gas and oil), accounting for 65.2 percent of total generation, and hydro (34.8 percent).

Suggested Citation

  • Nguyen Minh Bao, . "Viet Nam Country Report," Chapters, Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA).
  • Handle: RePEc:era:chaptr:2011-rpr-18-17

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