IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/f/pko719.html
   My authors  Follow this author

Dongya Koh

Personal Details

First Name:Dongya
Middle Name:
Last Name:Koh
Suffix:
RePEc Short-ID:pko719
https://sites.google.com/site/dongyakoh/home

Affiliation

Department of Economics
Walton College of Business
University of Arkansas

Fayetteville, Arkansas (United States)
https://walton.uark.edu/departments/economics/
RePEc:edi:deuarus (more details at EDIRC)

Research output

as
Jump to: Working papers

Working papers

  1. Yu Zheng & Raul Santaeulalia & Dongya Koh, 2015. "Labor Share Decline and the Capitalization of Intellectual Property Products," 2015 Meeting Papers 844, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  2. Koh, Dongya; Santaeulàlia-Llopis, Raül; Zheng, Yu, 2015. "Labor share decline and intellectual property products capital," Economics Working Papers ECO2015/05, European University Institute.

Citations

Many of the citations below have been collected in an experimental project, CitEc, where a more detailed citation analysis can be found. These are citations from works listed in RePEc that could be analyzed mechanically. So far, only a minority of all works could be analyzed. See under "Corrections" how you can help improve the citation analysis.

Working papers

  1. Yu Zheng & Raul Santaeulalia & Dongya Koh, 2015. "Labor Share Decline and the Capitalization of Intellectual Property Products," 2015 Meeting Papers 844, Society for Economic Dynamics.

    Cited by:

    1. Drautzburg, Thorsten & Fernández-Villaverde, Jesús & Guerrón-Quintana, Pablo, 2021. "Bargaining shocks and aggregate fluctuations," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 127(C).
    2. Carla Marchese & Fabio Privileggi, 2018. "Endogenous economic growth with disembodied knowledge," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 20(3), pages 437-449, June.
    3. M. Marx & B. Mojon & F. Velde, 2017. "Why Have Interest Rates Fallen far Below the Return on Capital," Working papers 630, Banque de France.
    4. Vladimír Peciar, 2021. "Empirical investigation into market power, markups and employment," MUNI ECON Working Papers 2021-03, Masaryk University.
    5. Cristiano Cantore & Paul Levine & Joseph Pearlman & Bo Yang, 2014. "CES Technology and Business Cycle Fluctuations," School of Economics Discussion Papers 0414, School of Economics, University of Surrey.
    6. David H. Autor & David Dorn & Lawrence F. Katz & Christina Patterson & John Van Reenen, 2017. "Concentrating on the Fall of the Labor Share," CESifo Working Paper Series 6336, CESifo.
    7. Matthew Chambers & Carlos Garriga & Don E. Schlagenhauf, 2016. "The Postwar Conquest of the Home Ownership Dream," Working Papers 2016-7, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    8. Jones, C.I., 2016. "The Facts of Economic Growth," Handbook of Macroeconomics, in: J. B. Taylor & Harald Uhlig (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 0, pages 3-69, Elsevier.
    9. Weicheng Lian, 2019. "Technological Changes, Offshoring, and the Labor Share," IMF Working Papers 2019/142, International Monetary Fund.
    10. Musa Orak, 2017. "Capital-Task Complementarity and the Decline of the U.S. Labor Share of Income," International Finance Discussion Papers 1200, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    11. Dominique Guellec & Caroline Paunov, 2017. "Digital Innovation and the Distribution of Income," NBER Working Papers 23987, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. vom Lehn, Christian, 2018. "Understanding the decline in the U.S. labor share: Evidence from occupational tasks," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 108(C), pages 191-220.
    13. Lee E. Ohanian & Musa Orak & Shihan Shen, 2021. "Revisiting Capital-Skill Complementarity, Inequality, and Labor Share," International Finance Discussion Papers 1319, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    14. Brueckner, Markus, 2017. "Rent extraction by capitalists," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 157-170.
    15. Drautzburg, Thorsten & Fern�ndez-Villaverde, Jes�s & Guerron-Quintana, Pablo A., 2017. "Political Distribution Risk and Aggregate Fluctuations," CEPR Discussion Papers 12187, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    16. Germán Gutiérrez & Sophie Piton, 2020. "Revisiting the Global Decline of the (Non-housing) Labor Share," American Economic Review: Insights, American Economic Association, vol. 2(3), pages 321-338, September.
    17. Gauti B. Eggertsson & Jacob A. Robbins & Ella Getz Wold, 2018. "Kaldor and Piketty’s Facts: The Rise of Monopoly Power in the United States," NBER Working Papers 24287, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

  2. Koh, Dongya; Santaeulàlia-Llopis, Raül; Zheng, Yu, 2015. "Labor share decline and intellectual property products capital," Economics Working Papers ECO2015/05, European University Institute.

    Cited by:

    1. Drautzburg, Thorsten & Fernández-Villaverde, Jesús & Guerrón-Quintana, Pablo, 2021. "Bargaining shocks and aggregate fluctuations," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 127(C).
    2. Xavier Raurich & Thomas Seegmuller, 2017. "Income Distribution by Age Group and Productive Bubbles," Working Papers halshs-01629219, HAL.
    3. Andrew Glover & Jacob Short, 2020. "Can Capital Deepening Explain the Global Decline in Labor's Share?," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 35, pages 35-53, January.
    4. Wen Chen & Bart Los & Marcel P. Timmer, 2018. "Factor Incomes in Global Value Chains: The Role of Intangibles," NBER Working Papers 25242, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Caballero, RJ & Farhi, E & Gourinchas, PO, 2017. "The safe assets shortage conundrum," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt8h3182xb, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
    6. Robin Döttling & Enrico Perotti, 2020. "Secular Trends and Technological Progress," ECONtribute Discussion Papers Series 006, University of Bonn and University of Cologne, Germany.
    7. De Loecker, Jan & Eeckhout, Jan, 2017. "The Rise of Market Power and the Macroeconomic Implications," CEPR Discussion Papers 12221, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    8. Bom, Pedro R.D. & Erauskin, Iñaki, 2021. "Productive government investment and the labor share," MPRA Paper 108381, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Roth, Felix & Sen, Ali & Rammer, Christian, 2021. "Intangible Capital and Firm-Level Productivity – Evidence from Germany," Hamburg Discussion Papers in International Economics 9, University of Hamburg, Chair of International Economics.
    10. ADACHI Daisuke & SAITO Yukiko, 2020. "Multinational Production and Labor Share," Discussion papers 20012, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    11. Jacob Short & Andrew Glover, 2017. "The Age-Distribution of Earnings and the Decline in Labor's Share," 2017 Meeting Papers 1369, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    12. Zhou, Yixiao & Tyers, Rod, 2019. "Automation and inequality in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 58(C).
    13. Cristiano Cantore & Paul Levine & Joseph Pearlman & Bo Yang, 2014. "CES Technology and Business Cycle Fluctuations," School of Economics Discussion Papers 0414, School of Economics, University of Surrey.
    14. Juan Carlos Conesa & Pau S. Pujolas, 2019. "The Canadian productivity stagnation, 20022014," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 52(2), pages 561-583, May.
    15. Matthew Chambers & Carlos Garriga & Don E. Schlagenhauf, 2016. "The Postwar Conquest of the Home Ownership Dream," Working Papers 2016-7, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    16. Naohisa Hirakata & Yasutaka Koike, 2018. "The Labor Share, Capital-Labor Substitution, and Factor Augmenting Technologies," Bank of Japan Working Paper Series 18-E-20, Bank of Japan.
    17. Philippe Aghion & Antonin Bergeaud & Timo Boppart & Peter J. Klenow & Huiyu Li, 2019. "A Theory of Falling Growth and Rising Rents," Working papers 740, Banque de France.
    18. José L. Torres & Pablo Casas, 2020. "Automation, Automatic Capital Returns, and the Functional Income Distribution," Working Papers 2020-02, Universidad de Málaga, Department of Economic Theory, Málaga Economic Theory Research Center.
    19. Jones, C.I., 2016. "The Facts of Economic Growth," Handbook of Macroeconomics, in: J. B. Taylor & Harald Uhlig (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 0, pages 3-69, Elsevier.
    20. Akos Valentinyi, 2018. "Quantity Measurement and Balanced Growth in Multi-Sector Growth Models," 2018 Meeting Papers 837, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    21. Goren, Amir, 2017. "Inequality and Production Elasticity," MPRA Paper 80316, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    22. David Rezza Baqaee & Emmanuel Farhi, 2017. "Productivity and Misallocation in General Equilibrium," NBER Working Papers 24007, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    23. Peter McAdam & Jakub Muck & Jakub Growiec, 2015. "Endogenous Labor Share Cycles: Theory and Evidence," 2015 Meeting Papers 62, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    24. Rod Tyers & Yixiao Zhou, 2019. "US-China rivalry: The macro policy choices," CAMA Working Papers 2019-35, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
    25. Robert J. Barro, 2019. "Double-counting of investment," AEI Economics Working Papers 1015856, American Enterprise Institute.
    26. Simcha Barkai, 2020. "Declining Labor and Capital Shares," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 75(5), pages 2421-2463, October.
    27. Grossman, Gene & Helpman, Elhanan & Oberfield, Ezra & Sampson, Thomas, 2017. "The Productivity Slowdown and the Declining Labor Share: A Neoclassical Exploration," CEPR Discussion Papers 12342, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    28. Bartels, Charlotte & Kersting, Felix & Wolf, Nikolaus, 2021. "Testing Marx. Income Inequality, Concentration, and Socialism in Late 19th Century Germany," SocArXiv 5y9wf, Center for Open Science.
    29. Musa Orak, 2017. "Capital-Task Complementarity and the Decline of the U.S. Labor Share of Income," International Finance Discussion Papers 1200, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    30. Song, Eunbi, 2021. "What drives labor share change? Evidence from Korean industries," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 370-385.
    31. Jan Behringer, 2020. "Factor shares and the rise in corporate net lending," FMM Working Paper 53-2020, IMK at the Hans Boeckler Foundation, Macroeconomic Policy Institute.
    32. Dominique Guellec & Caroline Paunov, 2017. "Digital Innovation and the Distribution of Income," NBER Working Papers 23987, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    33. Matthias Kehrig & Nicolas Vincent, 2017. "Growing Productivity without Growing Wages: The Micro-Level Anatomy of the Aggregate Labor Share Decline," CESifo Working Paper Series 6454, CESifo.
    34. Luis Estévez Bauluz, 2017. "Revised and extended national wealth series: Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the UK and the USA," PSE Working Papers halshs-02797842, HAL.
    35. Davide Furceri & Prakash Loungani & Jonathan D. Ostry, 2019. "The Aggregate and Distributional Effects of Financial Globalization: Evidence from Macro and Sectoral Data," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 51(S1), pages 163-198, December.
    36. Autor, David & Dorn, David & Katz, Lawrence & Patterson, Christina & Van Reenen, John, 2017. "The Fall of the Labor Share and the Rise of Superstar Firms," CEPR Discussion Papers 12041, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    37. Ludovic Panon, 2020. "Labor Share, Foreign Demand and Superstar Exporters," Sciences Po Economics Discussion Papers 2020-12, Sciences Po Departement of Economics.
    38. Sen, Ali, 2020. "Structural change within the services sector, Baumol's cost disease, and cross-country productivity differences," MPRA Paper 99614, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    39. Emmanuel Farhi & François Gourio, 2018. "Accounting for Macro-Finance Trends: Market Power, Intangibles, and Risk Premia," NBER Working Papers 25282, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    40. Timo Boppart & Huiyu Li, 2021. "Productivity Slowdown: Reducing the Measure of Our Ignorance," Working Paper Series 2021-21, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
    41. Ferraro, Domenico & Peretto, Pietro F., 2020. "Innovation-led growth in a time of debt," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 121(C).
    42. Joachim Hubmer, 2019. "The Race Between Preferences and Technology," 2019 Meeting Papers 1430, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    43. Lee E. Ohanian & Musa Orak & Shihan Shen, 2021. "Revisiting Capital-Skill Complementarity, Inequality, and Labor Share," International Finance Discussion Papers 1319, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    44. Gene Grossman & Elhanan Helpman & Ezra Oberfield & Thomas Sampson, 2018. "The Productivity Slowdown and the Declining Labor Share," 2018 Meeting Papers 169, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    45. Roberto Torrini, 2016. "Labour, profit and housing rent shares in Italian GDP: long-run trends and recent patterns," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 318, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    46. Emilien Gouin-Bonenfant, 2018. "Productivity Dispersion, Between-firm Competition and the Labor Share," 2018 Meeting Papers 1171, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    47. Ricardo J. Caballero & Emmanuel Farhi & Pierre-Olivier Gourinchas, 2017. "Rents, Technical Change, and Risk Premia Accounting for Secular Trends in Interest Rates, Returns on Capital, Earning Yields, and Factor Shares," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 107(5), pages 614-620, May.
    48. Mitra, Shalini, 2018. "Intangible Capital and the Rise in Wage and Hours Volatility," MPRA Paper 89697, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    49. Filip Abraham & Yannick Bormans, 2020. "The Impact of Superstar Firms on the Labor Share: Evidence from Belgium," De Economist, Springer, vol. 168(3), pages 369-402, September.
    50. Aum, Sangmin & Lee, Sang Yoon (Tim) & Shin, Yongseok, 2018. "Computerizing Industries and Routinizing Jobs: Explaining Trends in Aggregate Productivity," CEPR Discussion Papers 12747, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    51. Luis Estévez Bauluz, 2017. "Revised and extended national wealth series: Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the UK and the USA," Working Papers halshs-02797842, HAL.
    52. Andrew Glover & Jacob Short, 2020. "Demographic Origins of the Decline in Labor's Share," BIS Working Papers 874, Bank for International Settlements.
    53. Dongya Koh & Raül Santaeulàlia-Llopis, 2017. "Countercyclical Elasticity of Substitution," Working Papers 946, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
    54. Anna Stansbury & Lawrence H. Summers, 2018. "Productivity and Pay: Is the Link Broken?," Working Paper Series WP18-5, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
    55. Isabel Cairo & Jae Sim, 2017. "Income Inequality, Financial Crises and Monetary Policy," 2017 Meeting Papers 1433, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    56. Loukas Karabarbounis & Brent Neiman, 2018. "Accounting for Factorless Income," NBER Working Papers 24404, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    57. Sangmin Aum & Dongya Koh & Raül Santaeulàlia-Llopis, 2018. "Growth Facts with Intellectual Property Products: An Exploration of 31 OECD New National Accounts," Working Papers 1029, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
    58. German Gutierrez, 2018. "Investigating Global Labor and Pro t Shares," 2018 Meeting Papers 165, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    59. Goldin, Ian & Koutroumpis, Pantelis & Lafond, François & Winkler, Julian, 2020. "Why is productivity slowing down?," MPRA Paper 99172, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    60. Lionel Nesta & Stefano Schiavo, 2018. "International competition and rent sharing in French Manufacturing," Documents de Travail de l'OFCE 2018-14, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE).
    61. Alessandro Bellocchi & Giovanni Marin & Giuseppe Travaglini, 2021. "The Great Fall of Labor Share:Micro Determinants for EU Countries Over 2011-2019," Working Papers 2102, University of Urbino Carlo Bo, Department of Economics, Society & Politics - Scientific Committee - L. Stefanini & G. Travaglini, revised 2021.
    62. Richiardi, Matteo G. & Valenzuela, Luis, 2019. "Firm Heterogeneity and the Aggregate Labour Share," MPRA Paper 94561, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    63. Davide Furceri & Mr. Romain A Duval & Gabriele Ciminelli, 2018. "Employment Protection Deregulation and Labor Shares in Advanced Economies," IMF Working Papers 2018/186, International Monetary Fund.
    64. Kyoji Fukao & Koji Ito & Cristiano Perugini, 2019. "A Microeconomic Analysis of the Declining Labor Share in Japan," ADB Institute Series on Development Economics, in: Gary Fields & Saumik Paul (ed.), Labor Income Share in Asia, chapter 0, pages 247-267, Springer.
    65. Takahashi, Harutaka & Le Riche, Antoine, 2020. "A Dynamic Theory of the Declining Aggregated Labor Income Share: Intangible Capital vs. Tangible Capital," MPRA Paper 101564, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 05 Apr 2020.
    66. Saumik Paul & Yoko Oishi, 2018. "A Primer on the Drivers of Labor Income Share," Working Papers id:12948, eSocialSciences.
    67. Vicente Salas & Lucio San Juan & Javier Vallés, 2018. "Corporate cost and profit shares in the euro area and the US: the same story?," Working Papers 1833, Banco de España.
    68. Caballero, Ricardo & Farhi, Emmanuel & Gourinchas, Pierre-Olivier, 2017. "Rents, Technical Change, and Risk Premia: Accounting for Secular Trends in Interest Rates, Returns to Capital, Earnings Yields, and Factor Shares," CEPR Discussion Papers 11833, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    69. Stirati, Antonella & Paternesi Meloni, Walter, 2021. "Unemployment and the wage share: a long-run exploration for major mature economies," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 330-352.
    70. Mertens, Matthias, 2019. "Micro-mechanisms behind declining labour shares: Market power, production processes, and global competition," IWH-CompNet Discussion Papers 3/2019, Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH).
    71. Gonzalez, Ignacio & Trivin, Pedro, 2019. "The Global Rise of Asset Prices and the Decline of the Labor Share," MPRA Paper 94587, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    72. Drautzburg, Thorsten & Fern�ndez-Villaverde, Jes�s & Guerron-Quintana, Pablo A., 2017. "Political Distribution Risk and Aggregate Fluctuations," CEPR Discussion Papers 12187, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    73. Jakob Grazzini & Lorenza Rossi, 2020. "New Firms, Capital Intensity and the Labor Share: New Theoretical and Empirical Insights," CESifo Working Paper Series 8255, CESifo.
    74. Germán Gutiérrez & Sophie Piton, 2020. "Revisiting the Global Decline of the (Non-housing) Labor Share," American Economic Review: Insights, American Economic Association, vol. 2(3), pages 321-338, September.
    75. Mahone Zachary L. & Pujolas Pau S. & Naval Joaquín, 2021. "The Neoclassical Growth Model and the Labor Share Decline," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 21(2), pages 607-628, June.
    76. Ferraro, Domenico & Ghazi, Soroush & Peretto, Pietro F., 2020. "Implications of tax policy for innovation and aggregate productivity growth," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 130(C).
    77. Sekyu Choi & Jose-Victor Rios-Rull, 2020. "Labor Share and Productivity Dynamics," PIER Working Paper Archive 20-031, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania.
    78. Matthew Rognlie, 2018. "Comment on "Accounting for Factorless Income"," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2018, volume 33, pages 235-248, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    79. Kostarakos, Ilias, 2020. "Determinants of the (non-Housing) Labour Income Share in the EU," Papers WP693, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
    80. Kim, Jiwoon, 2021. "Wage negotiations in multi-worker firms and stochastic bargaining powers of existing workers," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 123(C).
    81. Andy Atkeson, 2020. "Alternative Facts Regarding the Labor Share," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 37, pages 167-180, August.
    82. Drago, Bergholt & Furlanetto, Francesco & Faccioli, Nicolò Maffei, 2019. "The decline of the labor share: new empirical evidence," Working Paper 2019/18, Norges Bank.
    83. Robert Dixon & Guay C. Lim, 2018. "Labor’s Share, the firm’s market power and TFP," Department of Economics - Working Papers Series 2038, The University of Melbourne.
    84. Döttling, Robin & Perotti, Enrico C, 2019. "Redistributive Growth," CEPR Discussion Papers 13984, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    85. Luis Estévez Bauluz, 2017. "Revised and extended national wealth series: Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the UK and the USA," World Inequality Lab Working Papers halshs-02797842, HAL.
    86. Joseba Martinez, 2018. "Automation, Growth and Factor Shares," 2018 Meeting Papers 736, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    87. Mitra, Shalini, 2019. "Intangible capital and the rise in wage and hours volatility," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 70-85.
    88. Sangmin Aum & Yongseok Shin, 2020. "Why Is the Labor Share Declining?," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, vol. 102(4), pages 413-428, October.

More information

Research fields, statistics, top rankings, if available.

Statistics

Access and download statistics for all items

Co-authorship network on CollEc

NEP Fields

NEP is an announcement service for new working papers, with a weekly report in each of many fields. This author has had 2 papers announced in NEP. These are the fields, ordered by number of announcements, along with their dates. If the author is listed in the directory of specialists for this field, a link is also provided.
  1. NEP-IPR: Intellectual Property Rights (2) 2015-10-04 2015-10-04. Author is listed
  2. NEP-MAC: Macroeconomics (1) 2015-10-04. Author is listed

Corrections

All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. For general information on how to correct material on RePEc, see these instructions.

To update listings or check citations waiting for approval, Dongya Koh should log into the RePEc Author Service.

To make corrections to the bibliographic information of a particular item, find the technical contact on the abstract page of that item. There, details are also given on how to add or correct references and citations.

To link different versions of the same work, where versions have a different title, use this form. Note that if the versions have a very similar title and are in the author's profile, the links will usually be created automatically.

Please note that most corrections can take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.