IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this book

Pensions Panorama : Retirement-Income Systems in 53 Countries


  • Edward Whitehouse


Pensions panorama provides a compendium of facts and analysis that should inform policy making and public debate about retirement-income systems around the world. The section following the introduction sets out a typology: a way of defining and classifying different kinds of pension schemes. It shows which countries have which types of pension schemes, covering all elements of the retirement-income system, including resource-tested benefits and basic pensions as well as public, earnings-related, and compulsory private pension plans. Next, the study sets out the institutional detail: the parameters and rules of different parts of the retirement-income system. The next section presents the core, empirical results: future pension entitlements of today's workers with different levels of earnings from all sources. This section includes the familiar replacement rate indicator: individual pension entitlements as a proportion of individual earnings when working. The following section explores the important role that personal income taxes and social security contributions play in determining the relative incomes of older people. In particular, it shows net replacement rates (that is, pension net of taxes and any contributions, relative to earnings, net of taxes and contributions). The third section on empirical results looks at the link between pension entitlements in retirement and earnings in work. This analysis highlights the key differences in philosophy between different countries' retirement-income systems. Moreover, changes to the pensions-earnings link have been central to many recent reforms to retirement-income regimes. The concluding section sets out a number of dimensions in which the pension systems of 53 countries differ.

Suggested Citation

  • Edward Whitehouse, 2007. "Pensions Panorama : Retirement-Income Systems in 53 Countries," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 7177.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbpubs:7177

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Whitehouse, Edward, 2001. "Pension systems in 15 countries compared: the value of entitlements," MPRA Paper 14751, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Gordon Keenay & Edward Whitehouse, 2003. "The Role of the Personal Tax System in Old-Age Support: A Survey of 15 Countries," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 24(1), pages 1-21, March.
    3. David Robalino, 2005. "Pensions in the Middle East and North Africa: Time for Change," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 7427.
    4. Palacios, Robert, 2006. "Civil-service pension schemes around the world," MPRA Paper 14796, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Queisser, Monika & Whitehouse, Edward, 2005. "Pensions at a glance: public policies across OECD countries," MPRA Paper 10907, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Gordon Keenay & Edward R. Whitehouse, 2003. "Financial Resources and Retirement in Nine OECD Countries: The Role of The Tax System," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 8, OECD Publishing.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item


    Fiscal and Monetary Policy Pensions and Retirement Systems Technology Industry Banks and Banking Reform Wages Compensation and Benefits Finance and Financial Sector Development Industry Social Protections and Labor Macroeconomics and Economic Growth;

    JEL classification:

    • H55 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Social Security and Public Pensions
    • J26 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Retirement; Retirement Policies


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbpubs:7177. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Thomas Breineder). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.