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First- and third-person approaches: the problem of integration


  • Olga Markic

    () (Faculty of Arts - University of Ljubljana)


The author discusses the problem of integration of first- and third-person approaches in studying the human mind. She critically evaluates and compares various methodologies for studying and explaining conscious experience. Common strategies that apply reductive explanation seem to be unsatisfied for explaining experience and its subjective character. There were attempts to explain experience from the first-person point of view (introspectionism, philosophical phenomenology) but the results were not intersubjectively verifiable. Dennett proposed heterophenomenology as a scientifically viable alternative which supposed to bridge the gap between first- and third-person perspectives. The author critically evaluates his proposal and compares it to contemporary attempts to provide first-person methods.

Suggested Citation

  • Olga Markic, 2012. "First- and third-person approaches: the problem of integration," Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems - scientific journal, Croatian Interdisciplinary Society Provider Homepage:, vol. 10(3), pages 213-222.
  • Handle: RePEc:zna:indecs:v:10:y:2012:i:3:p:213-222

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Garrett, James L. & Ruel, Marie T., 1999. "Are Determinants of Rural and Urban Food Security and Nutritional Status Different? Some Insights from Mozambique," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(11), pages 1955-1975, November.
    2. Maxwell, Daniel G., 1998. "The political economy of urban food security in Sub-Saharan Africa," FCND discussion papers 41, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
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    Cited by:

    1. Toma Strle, 2013. "Why Should We Study Experience More Systematically: Neurophenomenology and Modern Cognitive Science," Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems - scientific journal, Croatian Interdisciplinary Society Provider Homepage:, vol. 11(4), pages 376-390.

    More about this item


    cognitive science; heterophenomenology; consciousness; experience; explanation;

    JEL classification:

    • D83 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Search; Learning; Information and Knowledge; Communication; Belief; Unawareness
    • D84 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Expectations; Speculations
    • Z10 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - General


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