IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Stochastic Choice and Revealed Perturbed Utility


  • Drew Fudenberg
  • Ryota Iijima
  • Tomasz Strzalecki


Perturbed utility functions—the sum of expected utility and a nonlinear perturbation function—provide a simple and tractable way to model various sorts of stochastic choice. We provide two easily understood conditions each of which characterizes this representation: One condition generalizes the acyclicity condition used in revealed preference theory, and the other generalizes Luce's IIA condition. We relate the discrimination or selectivity of choice rules to properties of their associated perturbations, both across different agents and across decision problems. We also show that these representations correspond to a form of ambiguity‐averse preferences for an agent who is uncertain about her true utility.

Suggested Citation

  • Drew Fudenberg & Ryota Iijima & Tomasz Strzalecki, 2015. "Stochastic Choice and Revealed Perturbed Utility," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 83, pages 2371-2409, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:emetrp:v:83:y:2015:i::p:2371-2409

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Steverson, Kai & Brandenburger, Adam & Glimcher, Paul, 2019. "Choice-theoretic foundations of the divisive normalization model," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 164(C), pages 148-165.
    2. Echenique, Federico & Saito, Kota & Tserenjigmid, Gerelt, 2018. "The perception-adjusted Luce model," Mathematical Social Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 67-76.
    3. Victor H. Aguiar & Maria Jose Boccardi & Nail Kashaev & Jeongbin Kim, 2018. "Does Random Consideration Explain Behavior when Choice is Hard? Evidence from a Large-scale Experiment," Papers 1812.09619,, revised Jun 2019.
    4. Ma, Wei, 2017. "Perturbed utility and general equilibrium analysis," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 122-131.
    5. repec:aea:aecrev:v:109:y:2019:i:7:p:2425-45 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Breitmoser, Yves, 2017. "Discrete Choice with Presentation Effects," Rationality and Competition Discussion Paper Series 35, CRC TRR 190 Rationality and Competition.
    7. Victor H. Aguiar & Nail Kashaev, 2019. "Discrete Choice and Welfare Analysis with Unobserved Choice Sets," Papers 1907.04853,, revised Jul 2019.
    8. Wei Ma, 2017. "Perturbed Utility and General Equilibrium Analysis," Working Papers 201701, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
    9. Aguiar, Victor H., 2017. "Random categorization and bounded rationality," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 159(C), pages 46-52.
    10. Dwenger, Nadja & Kübler, Dorothea & Weizsäcker, Georg, 2018. "Flipping a coin: Evidence from university applications," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 167(C), pages 240-250.
    11. Tserenjigmid, Gerelt, 2019. "Choosing with the worst in mind: A reference-dependent model," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 157(C), pages 631-652.
    12. Simone Cerreia-Vioglio & David Dillenberger & Pietro Ortoleva & Gil Riella, 2019. "Deliberately Stochastic," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 109(7), pages 2425-2445, July.
      • Simone Cerreia-Vioglio & David Dillenberger & Pietro Ortoleva & Gil Riella, 2012. "Deliberately Stochastic," PIER Working Paper Archive 17-013, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania, revised 25 May 2017.
    13. Chambers, Christopher P. & Rehbeck, John, 2018. "Note on symmetric utility," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 162(C), pages 27-29.
    14. Ellison, Glenn & Fudenberg, Drew & Imhof, Lorens A., 2016. "Fast convergence in evolutionary models: A Lyapunov approach," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 161(C), pages 1-36.
    15. repec:spr:joecth:v:68:y:2019:i:4:d:10.1007_s00199-018-1145-5 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wly:emetrp:v:83:y:2015:i::p:2371-2409. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley Content Delivery). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.