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Smallholder Wood Production and Population Pressure in East Africa: Evidence of an Environmental Kuznets Curve?


  • Sandeep H. Patel
  • Thomas C. Pinckney
  • William K. Jaeger


The incentives for growing fuelwood on small farms are examined using survey data from Kenya. The analysis finds that tree planting is a competitive activity and that farmers are responsive to incentives to plant trees. These incentives vary across households facing different factor availabilities and market opportunities. The existence of a persistent fuelwood "gap," and the notion that population pressure will lead to declining tree cover, are not supported by the analysis. A simulation model indicates that as land continues to be subdivided tree cover may actually rise, a result consistent with other evidence of an "environmental Kuznets curve."

Suggested Citation

  • Sandeep H. Patel & Thomas C. Pinckney & William K. Jaeger, 1995. "Smallholder Wood Production and Population Pressure in East Africa: Evidence of an Environmental Kuznets Curve?," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 71(4), pages 516-530.
  • Handle: RePEc:uwp:landec:v:71:y:1995:i:4:p:516-530

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    Cited by:

    1. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Kumar Tiwari, Aviral & Nasir, Muhammad, 2013. "The effects of financial development, economic growth, coal consumption and trade openness on CO2 emissions in South Africa," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 1452-1459.
    2. Raheem Ibrahim Dolapo & Kazeem O. Isah, 2015. "Modelling the nonlinear relationship between co2 emissions and energy consumption: new evidence on the role of economic growth," ECONOMICS AND POLICY OF ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT, FrancoAngeli Editore, vol. 2015(1), pages 59-70.
    3. Place, Frank & Otsuka, Keijiro, 2000. "The role of tenure in the management of trees at the community level: theoretical and empirical analyses from Uganda and Malawi," CAPRi working papers 9, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    4. Gebreegziabher, Zenebe & van Kooten, G. Cornelis, 2013. "Does community and household tree planting imply increased use of wood for fuel? Evidence from Ethiopia," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 30-40.
    5. repec:ipg:wpaper:2014-603 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Frank Place & Keijiro Otsuka, 2000. "Population Pressure, Land Tenure, and Tree Resource Management in Uganda," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 76(2), pages 233-251.
    7. Mina Baliamoune-Lutz, 2017. "Trade and Environmental Quality in African Countries: Do Institutions Matter?," Eastern Economic Journal, Palgrave Macmillan;Eastern Economic Association, vol. 43(1), pages 155-172, January.
    8. Kramer, Daniel Boyd & Urquhart, Gerald & Schmitt, Kristen, 2009. "Globalization and the connection of remote communities: A review of household effects and their biodiversity implications," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(12), pages 2897-2909, October.
    9. William Cavendish, 1999. "Empirical regularities in the poverty-environment relationship of African rural households," CSAE Working Paper Series 1999-21, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
    10. William K. Jaeger & Van Kolpin, 2008. "The Environmental Kuznets Curve from Multiple Perspectives," Working Papers 2008.38, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    11. William Cavendish, 1999. "Empirical regularities in the poverty-environment relationship of African rural households," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/1999-21, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    12. Wang, Kuan-Min, 2012. "Modelling the nonlinear relationship between CO2 emissions from oil and economic growth," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 1537-1547.
    13. Muhammad, Shahbaz & Tiwari, Aviral & Muhammad, Nasir, 2011. "The effects of financial development, economic growth, coal consumption and trade openness on environment performance in South Africa," MPRA Paper 32723, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 10 Aug 2011.
    14. Nasir, Muhammad & Ur Rehman, Faiz, 2011. "Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon emissions in Pakistan: An empirical investigation," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 1857-1864, March.
    15. Templeton, Scott R. & Scherr, Sara J., 1999. "Effects of Demographic and Related Microeconomic Change on Land Quality in Hills and Mountains of Developing Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 903-918, June.
    16. Dinda, Soumyananda, 2004. "Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis: A Survey," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(4), pages 431-455, August.
    17. Lantz, Van, 2002. "Is there an Environmental Kuznets Curve for clearcutting in Canadian forests?," Journal of Forest Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 199-212.
    18. Godoy, Ricardo & O'neill, Kathleen & Groff, Stephen & Kostishack, Peter & Cubas, Adoni & Demmer, Josephien & Mcsweeney, Kendra & Overman, Johannes & Wilkie, David & Brokaw, Nicholas & Martinez, Marque, 1997. "Household determinants of deforestation by amerindians in honduras," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 977-987, June.
    19. Gebreegziabher, Zenebe & Mekonnen, Alemu & Kassie, Menale & Köhlin, Gunnar, 2010. "Household Tree Planting in Tigrai, Northern Ethiopia: Tree Species, Purposes, and Determinants," Discussion Papers dp-10-01-efd, Resources For the Future.
    20. Friedl, Birgit & Getzner, Michael, 2003. "Determinants of CO2 emissions in a small open economy," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 133-148, April.
    21. Cavendish, William, 2000. "Empirical Regularities in the Poverty-Environment Relationship of Rural Households: Evidence from Zimbabwe," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(11), pages 1979-2003, November.
    22. Sunderlin, William D. & Angelsen, Arild & Belcher, Brian & Burgers, Paul & Nasi, Robert & Santoso, Levania & Wunder, Sven, 2005. "Livelihoods, forests, and conservation in developing countries: An Overview," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(9), pages 1383-1402, September.
    23. Lantz, V. & Feng, Q., 2006. "Assessing income, population, and technology impacts on CO2 emissions in Canada: Where's the EKC?," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 229-238, May.

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