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Management of Transnational Commons: Coordination, Publicness, and Treaty Formation


  • Todd Sandler
  • Keith Sargent


This paper focuses on the formation of treaties to manage transnational commons when efforts must be coordinated among a minimal-sized group so as to make cooperation worthwhile. By focusing on mixed-strategy equilibria, we are concerned with instances where the intentions of others are uncertain. The number of required participants, the pattern of payoffs, transaction costs, and the underlying technology of public supply aggregation are key factors behind the achievement of coordination. We apply our analysis to explain the outcome of negotiations on stratospheric ozone depletion, global warming, acid rain, and tropical deforestation.

Suggested Citation

  • Todd Sandler & Keith Sargent, 1995. "Management of Transnational Commons: Coordination, Publicness, and Treaty Formation," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 71(2), pages 145-162.
  • Handle: RePEc:uwp:landec:v:71:y:1995:i:2:p:145-162

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    Cited by:

    1. Michael Finus & Raoul Schneider & Pedro Pintassilgo, 2011. "The Incentive Structure of Impure Public Good Provision – The Case of International Fisheries," Discussion Papers 1103, Exeter University, Department of Economics.
    2. Batabyal, Amittrajeet A., 1996. "An agenda for the design and study of international environmental agreements," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 3-9, October.
    3. Grant Hauer & C. Ford Runge, 1999. "Trade-Environment Linkages in the Resolution of Transboundary Externalities," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(1), pages 25-39, January.
    4. Nagase, Yoko & Silva, Emilson C.D., 2007. "Acid rain in China and Japan: A game-theoretic analysis," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 100-120, January.
    5. Hong, Fuhai & Karp, Larry, 2012. "International Environmental Agreements with mixed strategies and investment," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(9-10), pages 685-697.
    6. Kenneth Sullivan, 2008. "Presentación proactiva del desempeño," Boletín, Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos, vol. 0(3), pages 130-135, Julio-sep.
    7. Mustafa Babiker, 1998. "The CO2 Abatement Game: Costs, Incentives and the Stability of a Sub-Global Coalition," Computational Economics 9807002, EconWPA.
    8. Pittel, Karen & Rübbelke, Dirk T.G., 2008. "Climate policy and ancillary benefits: A survey and integration into the modelling of international negotiations on climate change," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1-2), pages 210-220, December.
    9. Caplan, Arthur J. & Silva, Emilson C. D., 1999. "Federal Acid Rain Games," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 25-52, July.
    10. Murdoch, James C. & Sandler, Todd & Vijverberg, Wim P. M., 2003. "The participation decision versus the level of participation in an environmental treaty: a spatial probit analysis," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 337-362, February.
    11. Maria del Carmen Garcia-Alonso & Keith Hartley, 2000. "Export controls, market structure and international coordination," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(3), pages 481-503.
    12. Kathleen A. Miller, 1996. "Salmon Stock Variability And The Political Economy Of The Pacific Salmon Treaty," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 14(3), pages 112-129, July.
    13. Batabyal, Amitrajeet A., 1997. "Developing countries and environmental protection: the effects of budget balance and pollution ceiling constraints," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(2), pages 285-305, December.
    14. Santiago J. Rubio, 2001. "International Cooperation In Pollution Control," Working Papers. Serie AD 2001-21, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
    15. Iman van Lelyveld & Marco Spaltro, 2011. "Coordinating Bank Failure Costs and Financial Stability," DNB Working Papers 306, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    16. Babiker, Mustafa H., 2001. "The CO2 abatement game: Costs, incentives, and the enforceability of a sub-global coalition," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 25(1-2), pages 1-34, January.
    17. Karp, Larry & Sacheti, Sandeep, 1996. "Limited Cooperation in International Environmental Agreements," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series qt9qm8158m, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
    18. Sandler, Todd, 2001. "On financing global and international public goods," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2638, The World Bank.
    19. Arce M., Daniel G. & Sandler, Todd, 2001. "Transnational public goods: strategies and institutions," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 493-516, September.
    20. MacDonald, Ian, 2001. "The Importance of Pre-commitment in International Environmental Agreements," 2001 Conference (45th), January 23-25, 2001, Adelaide 125752, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.
    21. Batabyal, Amitrajeet A., 1998. "Developing countries and international environmental agreements: The case of perfect correlation," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 85-102.
    22. Banco Central Europeo, 2008. "La titulización en la zona del euro," Boletín, Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos, vol. 0(3), pages 136-149, Julio-sep.

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