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Closing Routes to Retirement for Women: How Do They Respond?


  • Johannes Geyer
  • Clara Welteke


We study the employment effects of a large increase in the early retirement age (ERA) of women. Raising the ERA has the potential to extend contribution periods and to reduce the number of pensioners at the same time. However, workers may not be able to work longer or may choose other social support programs as exit routes from employment. Results suggest that the reform increases employment, unemployment, and inactivity rates of women aged 60 and older. However, this is mainly because women remain longer in their respective labor market status, rather than active substitution from employment into unemployment or inactivity.

Suggested Citation

  • Johannes Geyer & Clara Welteke, 2021. "Closing Routes to Retirement for Women: How Do They Respond?," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 56(1), pages 311-341.
  • Handle: RePEc:uwp:jhriss:v:56:y:2021:i:1:p:311-341
    Note: DOI: 10.3368/jhr.56.1.0717-8947R2

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