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Black/White Differences in Schooling and Employment

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  • Steven G. Rivkin

Abstract

This paper investigates the extent to which academic preparation, the structure of labor market opportunities, and exposure to nonmarket income alternatives explain race and gender differences in schooling and employment. Despite lower overall high school continuation and college attendance rates, Black men and women in the High School and Beyond Longitudinal Survey were actually more likely to continue high school and attend college than Whites with similar mathematics and verbal test scores. In contrast, Black school leavers had far lower employment rates than Whites with similar test scores. Multinomial logit estimates show that fewer job opportunities for Blacks offer a partial explanation for the observed patterns of schooling and employment. There is little or no evidence, however, that community crime and welfare recipiency rates affected the probability of employment for Blacks or Whites.

Suggested Citation

  • Steven G. Rivkin, 1995. "Black/White Differences in Schooling and Employment," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 30(4), pages 826-852.
  • Handle: RePEc:uwp:jhriss:v:30:y:1995:i:4:p:826-852
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    Cited by:

    1. Rodrigo M. S. Moita & Claudio Paiva, 2013. "Political Price Cycles in Regulated Industries: Theory and Evidence," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 5(1), pages 94-121, February.
    2. Peter Arcidiacono & Cory Koedel, 2014. "Race and College Success: Evidence from Missouri," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 6(3), pages 20-57, July.
    3. van der Steeg, Marc & van Elk, Roel & Webbink, Dinand, 2015. "Does intensive coaching reduce school dropout? Evidence from a randomized experiment," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 184-197.
    4. Francis, Andrew M. & Tannuri-Pianto, Maria, 2012. "The redistributive equity of affirmative action: Exploring the role of race, socioeconomic status, and gender in college admissions," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 45-55.
    5. Hanushek, Eric A. & Schwerdt, Guido & Wiederhold, Simon & Woessmann, Ludger, 2015. "Returns to skills around the world: Evidence from PIAAC," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 103-130.
    6. Hermann, Zoltán, 2005. "A helyi munkaerőpiac hatása a középfokú továbbtanulási döntésekre
      [The local labour markets effect on decisions to enter secondary-level education]
      ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(1), pages 39-60.
    7. Robert Wagmiller, 2007. "Race and the spatial segregation of jobless men in urban America," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 44(3), pages 539-562, August.
    8. Philippe Belley & Lance Lochner, 2007. "The Changing Role of Family Income and Ability in Determining Educational Achievement," Journal of Human Capital, University of Chicago Press, vol. 1(1), pages 37-89.
    9. Sievertsen, Hans Henrik, 2016. "Local unemployment and the timing of post-secondary schooling," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 17-28.
    10. Eric A. Hanushek & Ludger Woessmann, 2008. "The Role of Cognitive Skills in Economic Development," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 46(3), pages 607-668, September.
    11. Rivkin, Steven G., 2001. "Tiebout sorting, aggregation and the estimation of peer group effects," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 201-209, June.
    12. Marc van der Steeg & Roel van Elk & Dinand Webbink, 2012. "Does intensive coaching reduce school dropout?," CPB Discussion Paper 224, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    13. Eric A. Hanushek, 2008. "Incentives for Efficiency and Equity in the School System," Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 9(3), pages 5-27, August.
    14. O'Higgins, Niall, 2001. "Youth unemployment and employment policy: a global perspective," MPRA Paper 23698, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Amalia R. Miller & Lei Zhang, 2012. "Intergenerational Effects of Welfare Reform on Educational Attainment," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 55(2), pages 437-476.
    16. Robert Bozick, 2009. "Job opportunities, economic resources, and the postsecondary destinations of American youth," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 46(3), pages 493-512, August.
    17. Hanushek, Eric A., 2006. "Alternative school policies and the benefits of general cognitive skills," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 447-462, August.
    18. Kevin Lang & Michael Manove, 2011. "Education and Labor Market Discrimination," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(4), pages 1467-1496, June.
    19. Andréa Zaitune Curi & Ernesto Martins Faria & Naércio Aquino Menezes-Filho, 2011. "ARelação entre Mensalidade Escolar eProficiência no ENEM," Anais do XXXVII Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 37th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 210, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pós-Graduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
    20. Hanushek, Eric A. & Luque, Javier A., 2003. "Efficiency and equity in schools around the world," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(5), pages 481-502, October.
    21. Leslie S. Stratton & Nabanita Datta Gupta & David Reimer & Anders Holm, 2017. "Modeling Enrollment in and Completion of Vocational Education: The Role of Cognitive and Non-cognitive Skills by Program Type," University of Western Ontario, Centre for Human Capital and Productivity (CHCP) Working Papers 20172, University of Western Ontario, Centre for Human Capital and Productivity (CHCP).
    22. Lopez-Valcarcel, Beatriz Gonzalez & Quintana, Delia Davila, 1998. "Economic and Cultural Impediments to University Education in Spain," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 93-103, February.
    23. McDonough, Ian K., 2015. "Dynamics of the black–white gap in academic achievement," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 17-33.

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