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Family Endowments and the Achievement of Young Children with Special Reference to the Underclass

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  • M. Anne Hill
  • June O'Neill

Abstract

This paper investigates the factors underlying cognitive achievement among young children using a Becker-Tomes model of intergenerational transmission adapted to incorporate transmission of a family's cultural orientation toward achievement. The model relates a child's achievement to parental income and cognitive skills as well as to grandparent's income and education. Using data on PPVT scores for children born to women in the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth, we find large and significant positive effects of the mother's AFQT score, her schooling, and the grandparents' schooling. We also find that increases in the mother's hours at work bear significant negative effects on her child's achievement. This effect is only partially compensated for by higher money income among these young children. A mother's welfare dependence is associated with a reduction in her child's PPVT score, an effect that is not explained by poverty persistence. Evidence that welfare participation signals transmission of low achievement orientation while variables such as maternal education signal positive values is reinforced through the use of a mediating variable measuring the time a mother spends reading to her children.

Suggested Citation

  • M. Anne Hill & June O'Neill, 1994. "Family Endowments and the Achievement of Young Children with Special Reference to the Underclass," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(4), pages 1064-1100.
  • Handle: RePEc:uwp:jhriss:v:29:y:1994:4:1:p:1064-1100
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    Cited by:

    1. Deborah A. Cobb-Clark & Julie Moschion, 2017. "Gender gaps in early educational achievement," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 30(4), pages 1093-1134, October.
    2. Julio Cáceres-Delpiano, 2006. "The Impacts of Family Size on Investment in Child Quality," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 41(4).
    3. Emanuela Cardia & Serena Ng, 1997. "How Important are Intergenerational Transfers of Time? A Macroeconomic Analysis," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 395, Boston College Department of Economics.
    4. Levine, Phillip B. & Zimmerman, David J., 2005. "Children's welfare exposure and subsequent development," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(1), pages 31-56, January.
    5. I. Ku & R. D. Plotnick, "undated". "Do Children from Welfare Families Obtain Less Education?," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 1217-00, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
    6. Gregg, Paul & Propper, Carol & Washbrook, Elizabeth, 2007. "Understanding the relationship between parental income and multiple child outcomes: a decomposition analysis," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 6196, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    7. Patrick Mason, 1997. "Race, culture, and skill: Interracial wage differences among African Americans, Latinos, and whites," The Review of Black Political Economy, Springer;National Economic Association, vol. 25(3), pages 5-39, March.
    8. Ozturk, Orgul & Chyi, hau, 2006. "The Effects of Single Mothers' Welfare Participation and Work Decisions on Children's Attainments," MPRA Paper 10110, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2008.
    9. Ana Rute Cardoso & Elsa Fontainha & Chiara Monfardini, 2008. "Children and parents time use: Empirical evidence on investment in human capital in France, Italy and Germany," CHILD Working Papers wp17_08, CHILD - Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic economics - ITALY.
    10. Chyi, Hau & Ozturk, Orgul, 2006. "Welfare Reform and Children's Short-Run Attainments," MPRA Paper 10341, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2008.
    11. Robyn Donrovich & Paul Puschmann & Koen Matthijs, 2014. "Rivalry, solidarity, and longevity among siblings," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 31(38), pages 1167-1198, November.
    12. Zhan, Min, 2006. "Assets, parental expectations and involvement, and children's educational performance," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 28(8), pages 961-975, August.
    13. Pierre Lefebvre & Philip Merrigan, 1998. "Work Schedules, Job Characteristics, Parenting Practices and Children's Outcomes," Cahiers de recherche CREFE / CREFE Working Papers 77, CREFE, Université du Québec à Montréal.
    14. Anna Christina D'Addio, 2007. "Intergenerational Transmission of Disadvantage: Mobility or Immobility Across Generations?," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 52, OECD Publishing.
    15. Agee, Mark D. & Crocker, Thomas D., 2000. "Household environmental protection and the intergenerational transmission of human capital," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 673-690, December.
    16. Charles L. Baum, 2005. "The Effects of Employment while Pregnant on Health at Birth," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 43(2), pages 283-302, April.
    17. Benjamín Villena-Rodán & Cecilia Ríos-Aguilar, 2011. "Causal Effects of Maternal Time-Investment on Children's Cognitive Outcomes," Documentos de Trabajo 285, Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile.
    18. Robert Kaestner & Hope Corman, 1995. "The Impact of Child Health and Family Inputs on Child Cognitive Develop-ment," NBER Working Papers 5257, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    19. Mason, Patrick L., 1997. "Race, culture, and skill: interracial wage differentials among African Americans, Latinos, and whites," MPRA Paper 11329, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. Pedro Nuno Teixeira, 2011. "A reluctant founding father: Placing Jacob Mincer in the history of (labor) economics," The European Journal of the History of Economic Thought, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(5), pages 673-695, December.
    21. Hati, Koushik Kumar & Majumder, Rajarshi, 2012. "Proximate Determinants of School Dropout: A study on Rural West Bengal," MPRA Paper 45850, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    22. Pierre Lefebvre & Philip Merrigan, 1998. "Family Background, Family Income, Maternal Work and Child Development," Cahiers de recherche CREFE / CREFE Working Papers 78, CREFE, Université du Québec à Montréal.
    23. Chyi, Hau & Ozturk, Orgul, 2006. "Welfare Reform and Children's Short-Run Attainments: A Structural Approach," MPRA Paper 10228, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2008.
    24. repec:cep:sticas:/129 is not listed on IDEAS
    25. Hau Chyi, 2013. "The Effects of Single Mothers’Welfare Participation and Work Decisions on Children’s Attainments," WISE Working Papers 2013-10-14, Wang Yanan Institute for Studies in Economics (WISE), Xiamen University.

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