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Economic Forces, Fundamental Variables, and Equity Returns

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  • He, Jia
  • Ng, Lilian K

Abstract

We investigate whether size and book-to-market values of equity are proxying for macroeconomic risks found in Chen, Roll, and Ross's multifactor model or are measures of stocks' risk exposure to relative distress. We find that the role of size subsumes stocks' risk exposures associated with the Chen, Roll, and Ross's factors and that the Chen, Roll, and Ross's multifactor model does not explain the book-to-market values of equity effect. We also find that size and book-to-market values of equity are related to relative distress and that relative distress can explain the size effect, but only partially the effect of book-to-market values of equity, on average stock returns. Copyright 1994 by University of Chicago Press.

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  • He, Jia & Ng, Lilian K, 1994. "Economic Forces, Fundamental Variables, and Equity Returns," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 67(4), pages 599-609, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:ucp:jnlbus:v:67:y:1994:i:4:p:599-609
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    Cited by:

    1. Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain & Zakaria, Muhammad & Raza, Naveed, 2014. "Sensitivity Analysis of CAPM Estimates: Data Frequency and Time Frame," MPRA Paper 60110, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Ewing, Bradley T., 2001. "Cross-Effects of Fundamental State Variables," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 633-645, October.
    3. Zhou, Guofu, 1999. "Security factors as linear combinations of economic variables," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 2(4), pages 403-432, November.
    4. Antonio Roma, 2006. "Common factors and balance sheet structure of major European banks," BNL Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 59(237), pages 123-170.
    5. Mohammed Bouaddi & Abderrahim Taamouti, 2012. "Portfolio risk management in a data-rich environment," Financial Markets and Portfolio Management, Springer;Swiss Society for Financial Market Research, vol. 26(4), pages 469-494, December.
    6. Aretz, Kevin & Bartram, Söhnke M. & Pope, Peter F., 2010. "Macroeconomic risks and characteristic-based factor models," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1383-1399, June.
    7. Miroslav Matteev, 2004. "CAPM Anomalies and the Efficiency of Stock Markets in Transition: Evidence from Bulgaria," South-Eastern Europe Journal of Economics, Association of Economic Universities of South and Eastern Europe and the Black Sea Region, vol. 2(1), pages 35-58.
    8. Smimou, K. & Khallouli, W., 2015. "Does the Euro affect the dynamic relation between stock market liquidity and the business cycle?," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 125-153.
    9. Uluc Aysun & Melanie Guldi, 2008. "Increasing Derivatives Market Activity in Emerging Markets and Exchange Rate Exposure," Working papers 2008-06, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics, revised Oct 2008.
    10. Ewing, Bradley T., 2003. "The response of the default risk premium to macroeconomic shocks," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 261-272.
    11. Ewing, Bradley T. & Payne, James E., 2005. "The response of real estate investment trust returns to macroeconomic shocks," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 58(3), pages 293-300, March.
    12. Elvio Accinelli & Leobardo Plata & Joss Sánchez, 2011. "Characterization of solutions for bankruptcy problems," Documentos de Trabajo (working papers) 1911, Department of Economics - dECON.
    13. Clare, A. D. & Priestley, R. & Thomas, S. H., 1998. "Reports of beta's death are premature: Evidence from the UK," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(9), pages 1207-1229, September.
    14. Erie Febrian & Aldrin Herwany, 2009. "The Performance Of Asset Pricing Models Before, During, And After Financial Crisis In Emerging Market: Evidence From Indonesia," Working Papers in Business, Management and Finance 200902, Department of Management and Business, Padjadjaran University, revised Feb 2009.
    15. Smimou, K., 2011. "Transition to the Euro and its impact on country portfolio diversification," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 88-103, January.
    16. Smimou, K. & Khallouli, W., 2016. "On the intensity of liquidity spillovers in the Eurozone," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 388-405.
    17. Mohanty, Sunil & Nandha, Mohan & Habis, Essam & Juhabi, Eid, 2014. "Oil price risk exposure: The case of the U.S. Travel and Leisure Industry," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 117-124.
    18. Mohanty, Roshni & P, Srinivasan, 2014. "The Time-Varying Risk and Return Trade Off in Indian Stock Markets," MPRA Paper 55660, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Smimou, K., 2014. "Consumer attitudes, stock market liquidity, and the macro economy: A Canadian perspective," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 186-209.
    20. Syed Jawad Hussain Shahzad & Saniya Khalid & Saba Ameer, 2016. "CAPM estimates: Can data frequency and time period lend a hand?," International Journal of Financial Engineering (IJFE), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 3(02), pages 1-12, June.
    21. Evangelos Karanikas & George Leledakis & Elias Tzavalis, 2006. "Structural Changes in Expected Stock Returns Relationships: Evidence from ASE," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(9-10), pages 1610-1628.
    22. Michailidis, G., 2009. "Multivariate methods in examining macroeconomic variables effect on Greek stock market returns, 1997-2004," Applied Econometrics and International Development, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 9(1).
    23. Antonio Roma, 2006. "Common factors and balance sheet structure of major European banks," Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 59(237), pages 123-170.

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