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Vertical and Horizontal Separation in the European Railway Sector and its Effects on Productivity


  • Pedro Cantos
  • José Manuel Pastor
  • Lorenzo Serrano


The processes of vertical and horizontal separation within the railway sector are relatively recent in many European countries, and as a result, little analytical research has been carried out on their impact. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effects of these organisational reforms on efficiency, productivity, and technical change in sixteen national railway systems in Europe over the period 1985-2005. Results indicate that in general, the reforms appear to have been beneficial in terms of efficiency and productivity, and particularly when measures of vertical separation are combined with the entry of new operators in the freight sector. © 2010 LSE and the University of Bath

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  • Pedro Cantos & José Manuel Pastor & Lorenzo Serrano, 2010. "Vertical and Horizontal Separation in the European Railway Sector and its Effects on Productivity," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, University of Bath, vol. 44(2), pages 139-160, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:tpe:jtecpo:v:44:y:2010:i:2:p:139-160

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    2. Link, Heike, 2016. "A Two-Stage Efficiency Analysis of Rail Passenger Franchising in Germany," EconStor Open Access Articles, ZBW - German National Library of Economics, pages 76-92.
    3. Arrigo, Ugo & Di Foggia, Giacomo, 2013. "Schemes and levels of state aid to rail industry in Europe: evidences from a cross-country comparison," MPRA Paper 67829, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Mathieu Lefebvre & Sergio Perelman & Pierre Pestieau, 2015. "Productivity and performance in the public sector," Working Papers of BETA 2015-15, Bureau d'Economie Théorique et Appliquée, UDS, Strasbourg.
    5. José A. Gómez-Ibáñez, 2016. "Open Access to Infrastructure Networks: The Experience of Railroads," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 49(2), pages 311-345, September.
    6. Steffen Juranek, 2016. "Creating a National Champion: International Competition and Unbundling in Rail Transportation," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, University of Bath, vol. 50(1), pages 56-75, January.
    7. Nash, Chris A. & Smith, Andrew S.J. & van de Velde, Didier & Mizutani, Fumitoshi & Uranishi, Shuji, 2014. "Structural reforms in the railways: Incentive misalignment and cost implications," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 16-23.
    8. Abate, Megersa & Lijesen, Mark & Pels, Eric & Roelevelt, Adriaan, 2013. "The impact of reliability on the productivity of railroad companies," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 41-49.
    9. Cavaignac, Laurent & Petiot, Romain, 2017. "A quarter century of Data Envelopment Analysis applied to the transport sector: A bibliometric analysis," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 84-96.
    10. Cantos, Pedro & Manuel Pastor, José & Serrano, Lorenzo, 2012. "Evaluating European railway deregulation using different approaches," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 67-72.
    11. Chris Nash, 2013. "Rail transport," Chapters,in: Regulating Transport in Europe, chapter 3, pages 61-81 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    12. Arrigo, Ugo & Di Foggia, Giacomo, 2015. "Produzione, costi e performance delle principali reti ferroviarie dell’Unione Europea
      [Production, costs and performance of the main European rail networks]
      ," MPRA Paper 67799, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Bošković, Branislav & Bugarinović, Mirjana, 2015. "Why and how to manage the process of liberalization of a regional railway market: South-Eastern European case study," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 50-59.
    14. Smith, Andrew S.J., 2012. "The application of stochastic frontier panel models in economic regulation: Experience from the European rail sector," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 503-515.
    15. Dederke, Julian, 2014. "Bahnliberalisierung in der Europäischen Union: Die Rolle des EuGH als politischer und politisch restringierter Akteur bei der Transformation staatsnaher Sektoren," PIPE - Papers on International Political Economy 20/2014, Free University Berlin, Center for International Political Economy.
    16. Fumitoshi Mizutani & Andrew Smith & Chris Nash & Shuji Uranishi, 2015. "Comparing the Costs of Vertical Separation, Integration, and Intermediate Organisational Structures in European and East Asian Railways," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, University of Bath, vol. 49(3), pages 496-515, July.
    17. Jonathan Cowie & Sarah Loynes, 2012. "An assessment of cost management regimes in British rail infrastructure provision," Transportation, Springer, vol. 39(6), pages 1281-1299, November.
    18. Arrigo, Ugo & Di Foggia, Giacomo, 2013. "Assessing the railways subsidy in selected European countries: insights from the Italian case," MPRA Paper 67830, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Álvarez-SanJaime, Óscar & Cantos-Sanchez, Pedro & Moner-Colonques, Rafael & Sempere-Monerris, Jose J., 2016. "Rail access charges and internal competition in high speed trains," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 184-195.
    20. Friebel, Guido & Ivaldi, Marc & Pouyet, Jérôme, 2011. "Separation versus Integration in International Rail Markets: A Theoretical Investigation," TSE Working Papers 11-248, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE), revised Mar 2013.
    21. Ugo ARRIGO & Giacomo DI FOGGIA, 2014. "Theoretical And Viable Charging Models For Railway Infrastructure Access: An European Survey," Management Research and Practice, Research Centre in Public Administration and Public Services, Bucharest, Romania, vol. 6(2), pages 5-24, June.
    22. Bataille, Marc & Steinmetz, Alexander, 2013. "Intermodal competition on some routes in transportation networks: The case of inter urban buses and railways," DICE Discussion Papers 84, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE).
    23. Bougna, Emmanuel & Crozet, Yves, 2016. "Towards a liberalised European rail transport: Analysing and modelling the impact of competition on productive efficiency," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 358-367.
    24. Álvarez-SanJaime, Óscar & Cantos-Sanchez, Pedro & Moner-Colonques, Rafael & Sempere-Monerris, Jose J., 2015. "A model of internal and external competition in a High Speed Rail line," Economics of Transportation, Elsevier, vol. 4(3), pages 178-187.
    25. Merkert, Rico & Nash, Chris A., 2013. "Investigating European railway managers’ perception of transaction costs at the train operation/infrastructure interface," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 14-25.

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