Gender in American Tobacco Cards 1880--1920: The Role of Coercive Competition
This paper adds to the literature on Marxian coercive competition and its negative economic and social outcomes. An historical and econometric analysis of competitive intensity and the portrayal of women in one early form of tobacco advertising is conducted using an original data set. The historical analysis establishes the nature and intensity of competitive relations. Estimation results for a multinomial logit model for various portrayals of women show that a 1% increase in the market share of independent producers caused a 0.35--0.7% and 2.5--4.5% increase in the likelihood that women were included and treated exploitatively in ads in early and late competitive periods, respectively.
Volume (Year): 24 (2012)
Issue (Month): 4 (October)
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